Archiv des Autors: Alexander Lang

Fossil record of the Galliformes

Family incertae sedis

Archaealectrornis sibleyi Crowe & Short

Archaeophasianus mioceanus Lambrecht
Archaeophasianus roberti (Stone)

Argillipes aurorum Harrison & Walker
Argillipes paralectoris Harrison & Walker

Austinornis lentus Marsh

Bumbanipodius magnus Zelenkov [3]

Bumbanortyx transitoria Zelenkov [3]

Chambiortyx cristata Mourer-Chauviré

Coturnipes cooperi Harrison & Walker

Namaortyx sperrgebietensis Mourer-Chauviré

Palaeonossax senectus Wetmore

Palaeorallus alienus Kuročkin

Sobniogallus albinojamrozi Tomek et al.

Procrax brevipes Tordoff & Macdonald

Cracidae

Boreortalis laesslei Brodkorb

Ortalis affinis Feduccia & Wilson

Gallinuloididae

Gallinuloides wyomingensis Eastman

Paraortygoides messelensis Mayr
Paraortygoides radagasti Dyke & Gulas

Megapodidae

Garrdimalga mcnamarai Shute, Prideaux & Worthy

Latagallina naracoortensis Shute, Prideaux & Worthy
Latagallina olsoni Shute, Prideaux & Worthy

Progura campestris Shute, Prideaux & Worthy
Progura gallinacea De Vis

Ngawupodius minya Boles & Ivison

Numididae

Telecrex grangeri Wetmore

Odontophoridae

Cyrtonyx tedfordi Miller

Miortyx aldeni Howard
Miortyx teres Miller

Nanortyx inexpectatus Weigel

Neortyx peninsularis Holman

Paraortygidae

Paraortyx brancoi Gaillard
Paraortyx lorteti Gaillard

Pirortyx major (Gaillard)

Scopelortyx klinghardtensis Mourer-Chauvire et al.

Taoperdix miocaena Ballman
Taoperdix pessieti Gervais

Xorazmortyx turkestanensis Zelenkov & Panteleyev

Phasianidae

Alectoris baryosefi Černov
Alectoris peii Author ?
“Alectoris” pliocaena Tugarinov

Bantamyx georgicus Kurochkin

Bonasa praebonasia (Jánossy)

Chauvireria bulgarica Boev [1]

Dendragapus gilli (Shufeldt)
Dendragapus lucasi Howard
Dendragapus nanus (Shufeldt)

Diangallus mious Hou

Eurobambusicola turolicus Zelenkov

“Gallus” aesculapii Jánossy
“Gallus” beremendensis Jánossy
“Gallus” europaeus Harrison
Gallus georgicus Author ?
Gallus imereticus Author ?
Gallus karabachensis Baryšnikov & Potapova
Gallus kudarensis Burčak-Abramovič & Potapova
Gallus meschtscheriensis Author ?
Gallus sp. ‘Trinka Cave, Moldovia’
Gallus sp. ‘Krivtcha Cave, Ukraine’
Gallus tamanensis Author ?

Lagopus atavus Jánossy
Lagopus balcanicus Boev
Lagopus lagopus ssp. noaillensis Mourer-Chauviré
Lagopus mutus ssp. correzensis Mourer-Chauviré

Linquornis gigantis Yeh

Lophogallus naranbulakensis Zelenkov & Kurochkin

Megalocoturnix cordoni Sánchez Marco

Meleagris altus Marsh
Meleagris californica (Miller)
Meleagris celer Marsh
Meleagris leopoldi Miller & Bowman
Meleagris richmondi Shufeldt
Meleagris tridens Wetmore

Miophasianus altus Milne-Edwards
Miophasianus desnoyersi Milne-Edwards
Miophasianus medius Milne-Edwards

Mioryaba magyarica Zelenkov

Palaeocryptonyx depereti Gaillard
Palaeocryptonyx donnezani Deperet
Palaeocryptonyx gaillardi Ennouchi
Palaeocryptonyx grivensis Ennouchi

Palaeoperdix longipes Milne-Edwards
Palaeoperdix prisca Milne-Edwards
Palaeoperdix sansaniensis Milne-Edwards

Palaeortyx blanchardi Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx brevipes Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx caluxyensis Lydekker
Palaeortyx depereti Ennouchi
Palaeortyx edwardsi Depéret
Palaeortyx gaillardi Lambrecht
Palaeortyx gallica Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx grivensis Lydekker
Palaeortyx intermedia Ballman
Palaeortyx joleaudi Ennouchi
Palaeortyx major Gaillard
Palaeortyx maxima Lydekker
Palaeortyx media Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx miocaena Gaillard
Palaeortyx ocyptera Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx phasianoides Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx volans Gohlich & Pavia

Panraogallus hezhengensis Li et. al.

Pavo bravardi (Gervais)
Pavo moldovicus (Bocheński & Kurochkin)
Pavo sp. ‘Aramis, Ethiopia’

Pediocetes lucasi Shufeldt
Pediocetes nanus Shufeldt

Perdix palaeoperdix Mourer-Chauviré

Phasianus bulgaricus Boev [2]

Pliogallus csarnotanus Kessler & Horváth [4]

Plioperdix hungarica Jánossy

Proagriocharis kimballensis Martin & Tate

Rhegminornis calobates Wetmore

Rustaviornis georgicus Burchak-Abramovich & Meladze

Schaubortyx keltica Eastman

Shandongornis shanwangensis Yeh
Shandongornis yinanensis Yeh

Shanxiornis fenyinis Wang et al.

Syrmaticus phasianoides (Jánossy)

Tetrao conjugens Jánossy
Tetrao macropus Jánossy
Tetrao partium (Kretzoi)
Tetrao praeurogallus Jánossy
Tetrao rhodopensis Boev

Tologuica aurorae Zelenkov & Kurochkin
Tologuica karhui Zelenkov & Kurochkin

“Tympanuchus” lulli Shufeldt
“Tympanuchus” stirtoni Miller

Quercymegapodiidae

Ameripodius alexis Mourer-Chauviré
Ameripodius silvasantosi Alvarenga

Ludiortyx hoffmanni (Gervais)

Quercymegapodius brodkorbi Mourer-Chauviré
Quercymegapodius depereti (Gaillard)

Taubacrex granivora Alvarenga

***

Note that this list is far from being complete.

*********************

References:

[1] Zlatozae Boev: Chauvireria bulgarica sp. n. — an extinct Early Pleistocene small phasianid of Phasianinae Horsfield, 1821 from Bulgaria. Historia naturalis bulgarica 41(8): 55-70. 2020
[2] Zlatozar Boev: First European Neogene record of true pheasants from Gorna Sushitsa (SW Bulgaria). Historia naturalis bulgarica 41(5): 33-39. 2020
[3] N. V. Zelenkov: New bird taxa (Aves: Galliformes, Gruiformes) from the early Eocene of Mogolia. Paleontological Journal 545(4). 2021
[4] E. Kessler; I. Horváth: Presentation of so far undetermined bird remains from the Pliocene of Beremend 26 and Csarnóta 2 and 4 (Baranya county, South Hungary). Ornis Hungarica 30: 47–68. 2022

*********************

edited: 17.06.2022

Fossile Ordnung incertae sedis

Eogruidae

Amphipelargus cracrafti (Harrison & Walker)
Amphipelargus majori Lydekker
Amphipelargus sp. ‘Kryopigi, Greece’

Eogrus aeola Wetmore
Eogrus crudus Kurochkin
Eogrus turanicus (Bendukidze)

Ergilornis rapidus Kozlova
Ergilornis minor (Kozlova)

Sinoergilornis guangheensis Musser, Li & Clarke [1]

Sonogrus gregalis Kurochkin

Urmiornis brodkorbi Karhu
Urmiornis dzabghanensis (Kurochkin)
Urmiornis maraghanus Mecquenem
Urmiornis orientalis (Kurochkin)
Urmiornis ukrainus Kurochkin

***

Es handelt sich hierbei um Vertreter der Palaeognathae und nicht, wie lange angenommen, um Kranichverwandte; die meisten Arten sind ausschließlich anhand von Fußknochen bekannt. [2][3]

*********************

Quellen:

[1] Grace Musser; Zhiheng Li; Julia A. Clarke: A new species of Eogruidae (Aves: Gruiformes) from the Miocene of the Linxia Basin, Gansu, China: Evolutionary and climatic implications. The Auk 137: 1-13. 2019
[2] G. Mayr; N. Zelenkov: Extinct crane-like birds (Eogruidae and Ergilornithidae) from the Cenozoic of Central Asia are indeed ostrich precursors. Ornithology 138(4): 2021
[3] Gerald Mayr: Paleogene Fossil Birds. 2nd ed. edition 2022

*********************

bearbeitet: 24.05.2022

Fossile Gruiformes

Familie incertae sedis

Bumbanipes aramoides Zelenkov [3]

Bumbaniralla walbeckornithoides Zelenkov [3]

Loncornis erectus Ameghino

Palaeogeranos tourmenti Louchart & Duhamel [2]

Wanshuina lii Hou

Aptornithidae

Aptornis proasciarostratus Worthy, Tennyson & Scofield

Aramidae

Badistornis aramus Wetmore

Geranoididae

Eogeranoides campivagus Cracraft

Geranodornis aenigma Cracraft

Geranoides jepseni Wetmore

Palaeophasianus meleagroides Shufeldt

Paragrus prentici (Loomis)
Paragrus shufeldti Cracraft

Gruidae

Aramornis longurio Wetmore

Balearica excelsa Milne-Edwards
Balearica exigua Feduccia & Voorhies
Balearica rummeli Mlíkovský

Camusia quintanai Seguí

Eobalearica rinovi Gureev

Geranopsis hastingsiae Lydekker

Grus afghana Mourer-Chauviré et al.
Grus bogatshevi Serebrovakii
Grus cubensis Fischer & Stephan
Grus haydeni Marsh
Grus latipes Wetmore
Grus marshi Shufeldt
Grus melitensis Lydekker
Grus mongolica (Kurochkin)
Grus nannodes Wetmore & Martin
Grus pagei Campbell
Grus penteleci (Gaudry)
Grus primigenia Milne-Edwards
Grus sp. ‘Ryukuyu Islands, Japan’
Grus turfa Portis

Palaeogrus excelsa Milne-Edwards
Palaeogrus hordwelliensis Lydekker
Palaeogrus princeps (Portis)

Heliornithidae

Heliornithidae gen. & sp. ‘Pungo River Formation, USA’

Messelornithidae

Itardiornis hessae Mourer-Chauviré

Messelornis cristata Hesse,
Messelornis nearctica Hesse
Messelornis russelli Mourer-Chaviré

Pellornis mikkelseni Bertelli et al.

Walbeckornis creber Mayr

Parvigruidae

Parvigrus pohli Mayr

Rupelrallus saxoniensis Fischer

Rallidae

Aletornis bellus Marsh
Aletornis nobilis Marsh
Aletornis pernix Marsh

Australlus disneyi (Boles)
Australlus gagensis Worthy & Boles

Baselrallus intermedius De Pietri & Mayr

Belgirallus minutus Mayr & Smith
Belgirallus oligocaenus Mayr & Smith

Creccoides osbornii Shufeldt

Crexica crexica Zelenkov, Panteleyev & De Pietri

Eocrex primus Wetmore

Fulica infelix Brodkorb
Fulica americana ssp. shufeldti Brodkorb
Fulica montanei Alarcón-Muñoz, Labarca & Soto-Acuña [1]
Fulica stekelesi Tchernov

Fulicaletornis venustus Marsh

Gallinula sp. ‘Csarnota, Ungarn’
Gallinula kansarum Brodkorb
Gallinula balcanica Boev

Ibidopsis hordwelliensis Lydekker

Latipons gardneri Harrison & Walker

Litorallus livezeyi Mather et al.

Miofulica dejardini Van Beneden

Miohypotaenidia tanaisensis Zelenkov, Panteleyev & De Pietri

Miorallus major Lambrecht

Palaeoaramides christyi (Milne-Edwards)
Palaeoaramides eximius Brodkorb

Palaeorallus troxelli Wetmore

Paraortygometra porzanoides Lambrecht

Pararallus dispar (Milne-Edwards)
Pararallus hassenkampi Martini

Pardirallus lacustris (Brodkorb)

Parvirallus gracilis Harrison & Walker

Pastushkinia zazhigini (Kurochkin)

Pleistorallus flemingi Worthy

“Porzana” botunensis Boev
“Porzana” estramosi Jánossy
“Porzana” kretzoii (Kessler)
“Porzana” piercei Olson & Wingate
“Porzana” risilla (Kurochkin)
“Porzana” sp. ‘QM F23253, Australien’
“Porzana” sp. ‘Văršec, Bulgaria’
“Porzana” veterior (Jánossy) 

Priscaweka parvales Mather et al.

Quercyrallus arenarius Milne-Edwards
Quercyrallus dasypus Milne-Edwards
Quercyrallus ludianus Brodkorb

Rallicrex kolozsvarensis Lambrecht

Rallidae gen. & sp. ‘Chono-Harayah, Mongolei’
Rallidae gen. & sp. ‘Jamna Dolna, Polen’

Rallus auffenbergi Brodkorb
Rallus cyanocavi Steadman et al.
Rallus ibycus Olson & Wingate
Rallus natator Miller
Rallus philipsi Wetmore
Rallus polgardiensis (Jánossy)
Rallus prenticei Wetmore
Rallus recessus Olson & Wingate
Rallus richmondi Olson
Rallus sp. ‘Mátraszõlõs, Ungarn’
Rallus sp. ‘Ryukyu Islands, Japan’
Rallus sp. ‘Saw Rock Canyon, USA’

Rhenanorallus rhenanus Mayr

Youngornis gracilis Yeh
Youngornis qiluensis Yeh

Songziidae

Songzia acutunguis Wang, Mayr,  Zhang & Zhou
Songzia heidangkouensis Hou

*********************

Quellen:

[1] Jhonatan Alarcón-Muñoz; Rafael Labarca; Sergio Soto-Acuña: Holocene rails (Gruiformes: Rallidae) of Laguna de Tagua Tagua Formation, central Chile, with the description of a new extinct giant coot. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 104. 2020
[2] Antoine Louchart; Anaïs Duhamel: A new fossil from the early Oligocene of Provence (France) increases the diversity of early Gruoidea and adds constraint on the origin of cranes (Gruidae) and limpkin (Aramidae). Journal of Ornithology 2021
[3] N. V. Zelenkov: New bird taxa (Aves: Galliformes, Gruiformes) from the early Eocene of Mogolia. Paleontological Journal 545(4). 2021

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bearbeitet: 24.05.2022

Fossile Passeriformes

Familie incertae sedis

Certhiops rummeli Manegold

Corvitalusoides grandiculus Boles

Crosnoornis nargizia Bochenski, Tomek, Bujoczek & Salwa [11]

Jamna szybiaki Bocheński, Tomek, Bujoczek & Wertz

Kischinskinia scandens Volkova & Zelenkov

Resoviaornis jamrozi Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz & Świdnicka

Sylvosimadaravis janossyi (Kessler et Hír)

Winnicavis gorskii Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz, Happ, Bujoczek & Świdnicka

Acanthisittidae

Kuiornis indicator Worthy et al.

Acanthizidae

Acanthizidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Acrocephalidae

Acrocephalus major Kessler
Acrocephalus minor Kessler
Acrocephalus kordosi Kessler
Acrocephalus kretzoii Kessler
Acrocephalus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Hippolais veterior Kessler

Aegithalidae

Aegithalos congruis Kessler
Aegithalos gaspariki Kessler

Alaudidae

Alauda trivadari Kessler
Alauda xerarvensis Boev [2]

Ammomanes prealpestris (Boev)

Calandrella gali Kessler

Eremarida xerophila Boev [2]

Eremophila alpestris ssp. [6]
Eremophila orkhonensis (Zelenkov & Kurochkin)

Galerida bulgarica Boev [2]
Galerida cserhatensis Kessler & Hír
Galerida pannonica Kessler

Lullula balcanica Boev [2]
Lullula minor Kessler
Lullula minuscula Kessler
Lullula neogradensis Kessler & Hír
Lullula parva Kessler
Lullula slivnicensis Boev [2]

Melanocorypha donchevi Boev [2]
Melanocorypha minor Kessler
Melanocorypha serdicensis Boev [2]

Praealauda hevesensis Kessler & Hír

Artamidae

Kurrartapu johnnguyeni Nguyen et al.

Bombycillidae

Bombycilla brevia Kessler
Bombycilla hamori Kessler & Hír
Bombycilla kubinyii Kessler

Cardinalidae

Passerina sp. ‘Yepómera, Mexiko’

Certhiidae

Certhia immensa Kessler

Cettidae

Cettia janossyi Kessler
Cettia kalmani Kessler

Cinclidae

Cinclus gaspariki Kessler
Cinclus major Kessler & Hír
Cinclus minor Kessler

Cinclosomatidae

Cinclosoma elachum Nguyen, Archer & Hand

Climacteridae

Climacteris sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Cormobates sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Corvidae

Corvus annectens Shufeldt
Corvus bragai Paiva [8]
Corvus harkanyensis
 Kessler
Corvus hungaricus Lambrecht
Corvus pliocaenicus (Portis)
Corvus praecorax Depéret
Corvus shufeldti Sharpe

Henocitta brodkorbi Holman

Miocitta galbraethi Brodkorb

Miocorvus larteti (Milne-Edwards)

Miopica paradoxa Kurotschkin & Sobolew

Pica pica ssp. major Mourer-Chauviré
Pica mourerae Seguí
Pica praepica Boev [9]

Protocitta ajax Brodkorb
Protocitta dixi Brodkorb

Pyrrhocorax graculus ssp. vetus Kretzoi

Dasyornithidae

Dasyornis walterbolesi Nguyen

Emberizidae

Emberiza bartkoi Kessler & Hír
Emberiza gaspariki Kessler
Emberiza media Kessler
Emberiza pannonica Kessler
Emberiza parva Kessler
Emberiza polgardiensis Kessler
Emberiza shaamarica (Zelenkov & Kurochkin) [4]

Pedinorhis stirpsarcana Olson & McKittrick

Plectrophenax veterior Kessler

Estrildidae

Estrildidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Eurylaimidae

Eurylaimidae gen. & sp. ‘Wintersdorf, Deutschland’

Wieslochia weissi Mayr & Manegold [9]

Fringillidae

Carduelis kretzoii Kessler
Carduelis lambrechti Kessler
Carduelis medius Kessler
Carduelis parvulus Kessler

Coccothraustes balcanicus Boev
Coccothraustes major Kessler
Coccothraustes simeonovi Boev

Fringilla kormosi Kessler
Fringilla petenyii Kessler

Loxia csarnotanus Kessler
Loxia patevi Boev

Pinicola kubinyii Kessler

Pyrrhula gali Kessler
Pyrrhula minor Kessler

Furnariidae

Pseudoseisuropsis nehuen Noriega
Pseudoseisuropsis cuelloi Claramunt & Rinderknecht
Pseudoseisuropsis wintu Stefanini et al.

Hirundinidae

Delichon major Kessler
Delichon polgardiensis Kessler
Delichon pusillus Kessler

Hirundinidae gen. & sp. ‘Langebaanweg, Südafrika’ (mehrere spp.)

Hirundo aprica Feduccia
Hirundo gracilis Kessler
Hirundo major Kessler

Riparia minor Kessler

Icteridae

Cremaster tytthus (Brodkorb)

Euphagus magnirostris
 (Miller)

Icterus turmalis
Steadman & Oswald [7]

Molothrus resinosus
Steadman & Oswald [7]

Pandanaris convexa
 (Miller)

Pyelorhamphus molothroides
 (Miller)

Laniidae

Lanius capeki Kessler
Lanius hungaricus Kessler
Lanius intermedius Kessler
Lanius major Kessler
Lanius schreteri Kessler & Hír

Leiotrichidae

Turdoides borealis Jánossy

Locustellidae

Locustella janossyi Kessler
Locustella kordosi Kessler
Locustella mana Kessler

Locustellidae gen. & sp.
 ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Megalurus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Maluridae

Maluridae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Meliphagidae

Meliphagidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’ (mehrere spp.)

Menuridae

Menura tyawanoides Boles

Motacillidae

Anthus antecedens Kessler & Hír
Anthus baranensis Kessler
Anthus hiri Kessler

Motacilla intermedia Kessler
Motacilla minor Kessler
Motacilla robusta Kessler

Muscicapidae

Erithacus horusitzkyi Kessler & Hír
Erithacus minor Kessler

Luscinia denesi Kessler
Luscinia pliocaenica Kessler
Luscinia praeluscinia Kessler & Hír

Monticola pongraczii Kessler

Muscicapa leganyii Kessler & Hír
Muscicapa miklosi
 Kessler
Muscicapa petenyii Kessler

Oenanthe kormosi Kessler
Oenanthe pongraczi Kessler

Phoenicurus baranensis Kessler
Phoenicurus erikai Kessler

Saxicola baranensis Kessler
Saxicola lambrechti Kessler
Saxicola magna Kessler
Saxicola parva Kessler

Namapsittidae

Namapsitta praeruptorum Mourer-Chauviré et al. [13]

Neosittidae

Daphoenositta trevorworthyi Nguyen

Oriolidae

Longimornis robustirostrata Boles

Oriolus beremendensis Kessler

Orthonychidae

Orthonyx kaldowinyeri Boles

Palaeoscinidae (?)

Palaeoscinis turdirostris Howard

Paridae

Parus medius Kessler
Parus parvulus Kessler
Parus robustus Kessler

Passerellidae

Ammodramus eurius Brodkorb
Ammodramus hatcheri (Shufeldt)

Passeridae

Passer hiri Kessler
Passer minusculus Kessler
Passer pannonicus Kessler
Passer predomesticus Tchernov

Petroicidae

Petroicidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Phylloscopidae

Phylloscopus miocaenicus Kessler & Hír
Phylloscopus pliocaenicus Kessler
Phylloscopus venczeli Kessler

Pomatostomidae

Pomatostomus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Prunellidae

Prunella freudenthali Kessler
Prunella kormosi Kessler

Psittacopedidae

Eofringillirostrum boudreauxi Mayr, Ksepka & Grande
Eofringillirostrum parvulum Mayr, Ksepka & Grande

Morsoravis sedilis Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Chiappe

Parapsittacopes bergdahli Mayr [12]

Psittacopes lepidus Mayr & Daniels

Pumiliornis tessellatus Mayr

Regulidae

Regulus bulgaricus Boev
Regulus pliocaenicus Kessler

Sittidae

Sitta gracilis Kessler
Sitta ‚pusilla‚ Kessler (Artname bereits vergeben!)
Sitta senogalliensis Portis
Sitta villanyensis Kessler

Sturnidae

Dobrosturnus kardamensis Boev [5]

Sturnus baranensis Kessler
Sturnus brevis Kessler
Sturnus kretzoii Kessler & Hír
Sturnus pliocaenicus Kessler

Sylviidae

Sylvia intermedia Kessler
Sylvia pussila Kessler

Tichodromidae

Tichodroma apeki Kessler

Troglodytidae

Troglodytes robustus Kessler

Turdidae

Meridiocichla salotti Louchart

Turdicus minor Kessler & Hír
Turdicus pannonicus Kessler

Turdus major Kessler
Turdus medius Kessler
Turdus minor Kessler
Turdus miocaenicus Kessler
Turdus polgardiensis Kessler

Zygodactylidae

Eozygodactylus americanus Weidig

Primoscens minutus Harrison & Walker

Primozygodactylus ballmanni Mayr
Primozygodactylus danielsi Mayr
Primozygodactylus eunjooae Mayr & Zelenkov
Primozygodactylus longibrachium Mayr
Primozygodactylus major Mayr
Primozygodactylus quintus Mayr

Zygodactylus grandei Smith, DeBee & Clarke
Zygodactylus grivensis Ballmann
Zygodactylus ignotus Ballmann
Zygodactylus luberonensis Mayr
Zygodactylus“ ochlurus Hieronymus, Waugh & Clarke

*********************

Quellen:

[1] Jeno Kessler; János Hír: The avifauna in North Hungary during the Miocene Part II. Földtani Közlöny 142(2): 149-168. 2012
[2] Zlatozar Boev: Neogene Larks (Aves: Alaudidae (Vigors, 1825)) from Bulgaria. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 64(3): 295-318. 2012
[3] Nikita V. Zelenkov: The revised avian fauna of Rudabànya (Hungary, Late Miocene). Contribuciones del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturalis “Bernardino Rivadavia” 7: 253-266. 2017
[4] E. S. Palastrova; N. V. Zelenkov: A fossil bunting Emberiza shaamarica (Aves, Emberizidae) from the Upper Pliocene of Central Asia. Paleontological Journal 54: 652-661. 2020
[5] Zlatozar N. Boev: A new Middle Miocene starling (Sturnidae Rafinesque, 1815) from Karma (NE Bulgaria). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum – Plovdiv 5: 33-41. 2020
[6] Nicolas Dussex; David W. G. Stanton; Hanna Sigeman; Per G. P. Ericson; Jacquelyn Gill; Daniel C. Fisher; Albert V. Protopopov; Victoria L. Herridge; Valery Plotnikov; Bengt Hansson; Love Dalén: Biomolecular analyses reveal the age, sex and species identity of a near-intact Pleistocene bird carcass. Communications Biology 3: 1-6. 2020
[7] David W. Steadman; Jessica A. Oswald: New species of troupial (Icterus) and cowbird (Molothrus) from ice-age Peru. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 132 (1): 91–103. 2020
[8] Marco Pavia: Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Cradle of Humankind during the Plio-Pleistocene transition, inferred from the analysis of fossil birds from Member 2 of the hominin-bearing site of Kromdraai (Gauteng, South Africa)  Quaternary Science Reviews. 248: Article 106532. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2020.106532. 2020
[9] Jon Fjeldså; Les Christidis; Per G. P. Ericson: The Largest Avian Radiation: The Evolution of Perching Birds, or the Order Passeriformes. Lynx Edicions 2020
[10] Z. N. Boev: An early Pleistocene magpie (Pica praepica sp. n.) (Corvidae Leach, 1820) from Bulgaria. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum – Plovdiv 6: 51–59. 2021
[11] Zbigniew M. Bochenski; Teresa Tomek; Małgorzata Bujoczek; Grzegorz Salwa: A new passeriform (Aves: Passeriformes) from the early Oligocene of Poland sheds light on the beginnings of Suboscines. Journal of Ornithology 2021
[12] Gerald Mayr: A remarkably complete skeleton from the London Clay provides insights into the morphology and diversity of early Eocene zygodactyl near-passerine birds. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 12 Jan 2021
[13] Gerald Mayr: Paleogene Fossil Birds. 2nd ed. edition 2022

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bearbeitet: 23.05.2022

Fossile Psittaciformes

Cacatuidae

Cacatua sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Halcyornithidae (?)

Cyrilavis colburnorum Ksepka et al.
Cyrilavis olsoni Feduccia & Martin

Halcyornis toliapicus König

Pseudasturides macrocephalus (Mayr)

Pulchrapollia gracilis (Dyke & Cooper)

Serudaptus pohli Mayr

Messelasturidae (?)

Messelastur gratulator Peters

Tynskya eocaena Mayr
Tynskya waltonensis Mayr [1]

Nestoridae

Heracles inexpectatus Worthy, Hand, Archer, Scofield & De Pietri

Nelepsittacus daphneleeae Worthy et al.
Nelepsittacus donmertoni Worthy et al.
Nelepsittacus minimus Worthy et al.
Nelepsittacus (?) sp. ‘Croc Site Layer, Neuseeland’

Psittacidae

Agapornis atlanticus Mourer-Chauviré
Agapornis attenboroughi
 Manegold
Agapornis sp.
 ‘Kromdraai B, Südafrika’
Agapornis sp. ‘Plovers Lake, Südafrika’

Aratinga roosevelti Spillman

Archaeopsittacus verreauxi Milne-Edwards

Bavaripsitta ballmanni Mayr & Göhlich

Conuropsis fratercula Wetmore

Khwenena leopoldinae Manegold

Melopsittacus undulatus (ssp. ‘Pliozän’ ?)

Mogontiacopsitta miocaena Mayr

Nandayus vorohuensis Tonni & Noriega

Psittacidae gen. & sp. ‘Baikal Lake, Russland’

Xenopsitta feifari Mlíkovsky

Quercypsittidae

Quercypsitta ivani Mourer-Chauviré
Quercypsitta sp. ‘Walton-on-the-Naze, Großbritannien’
Quercypsitta sudrei Mourer-Chauviré

***

Die Familien Halcyornithidae und Messelasturidae gehören wahrscheinlich nicht hierher.

*********************

Quellen:

[1] G. Mayr: A partial skeleton of a new species of Tynskya Mayr, 2000 (Aves, Messelasturidae) from the London Clay highlights the osteological distinctness of a poorly known early Eocene “owl/parrot mosaic”. PalZ advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s12542-020-00541-8. 2021
[2] Gerald Mayr: Paleogene Fossil Birds. 2nd ed. edition 2022

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bearbeitet: 23.05.2022

Remiornis heberti Lemoine

Beschrieben bereits 1881 aber bis heute nahezu unbekannt, ist diese Art, soweit mir bekannt, nur anhand von Bruchstücken des Schnabels sowie einiger Wirbel und eines Fußknochens bekannt.

Der Vogel war, laut einiger Autoren, zu Lebzeiten etwa so groß wie ein Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae (Latham)) und mag ca. 55 kg gewogen haben [3]; ich persönlich komme beim Umrechnen aber nur auf eine Rückenhöhe von etwas über 70 cm.

Die Art ist bisher nur aus Frankreich bekannt und zwar aus Ablagerungen des Oberen Paläozän, also Schichten mit einem Alter von etwa 59 bis 56 Millionen Jahren, sie scheint außerdem mit keinem anderen Ratiten, lebend oder ausgestorben, näher verwandt gewesen zu sein.

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meine neueste Rekonstruktion, wahrscheinlich mit immer noch zu kurzen Beinen

*********************

Quellen:

[1] Victor Lemoine: Recherches sur les oiseaux fossiles des terrains tertiaires inférieurs des environs de Reims. Reims, Impr. F. Keller 1878-1881
[2] Eric Buffetaut; Delphine Angst: Stratigraphic distribution of large flightless birds in the Palaeogene of Europe and its palaeobiological and palaeogeographical implications. Earth-Science Reviews 138: 394-408. 2014
[3] Eric Buffetaut; Gaël de Ploëg: Giant birds from the uppermost Paleocene of Rivecourt (Oise, northern France). Boletim do Centro Português de Geo-História e Pré-História 2(1): 29-33. 2020
[4] Gerald Mayr: Paleogene Fossil Birds. 2nd ed. edition 2022

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bearbeitet: 22.05.2022

Fossile Ordnung incertae sedis

Avolatavidae (?)

Avolatavis tenens Ksepka & Clarke [1]

Eurofluvioviridavidae (?)

Eurofluvioviridavis robustipes Mayr [1]

Vastanavidae (?)

Vastanavis cambayensis Mayr et al. [1]
Vastanavis eocaena Mayr et al. [1]

***

Die drei hier aufgeführten Gattungen scheinen näher miteinander verwandt gewesen zu sein als mit anderen Taxa, ob sie allerdings wirklich allesamt in eine gemeinsame Ordnung gestellt werden können, ist zweifelhaft.

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References:

[1] Gerald Mayr: Paleogene Fossil Birds. 2nd ed. edition 2022

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bearbeitet: 22.05.2022

Fossile Caprimulgiformes

Famile incertae sedis

Palaeopsittacus georgei Harrison

Protocypselomorphus manfredkelleri Mayr

Archaeotrogonidae

Archaeodromus anglicus Mayr [1]

Archaeotrogon cayluxensis Gaillard
Archaeotrogon hoffstetteri Mourer-Chauviré
Archaeotrogon nocturnus Mlíkovský
Archaeotrogon venustus Milne-Edwards
Archaeotrogon zitteli Gaillard

Hassiavis laticauda Mayr

Caprimulgidae

Ventivorus ragei Mourer-Chauviré (?)

Fluvioviridavidae

Fluvioviridavis platyrhamphus Mayr & Daniels

*********************

Quellen:

[1] G. Mayr: An early Eocene fossil from the British London Clay elucidates the evolutionary history of the enigmatic Archaeotrogonidae (Aves, Strisores). Papers in Palaeontology advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/spp2.1392. 2021
[2] Gerald Mayr: Paleogene Fossil Birds. 2nd ed. edition 2022

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bearbeitet: 22.05.2022

Landvögel der brasilianischen Atlantik-Inseln

Im Atlantischen Ozean befinden sich drei Inselgruppen, die politisch zu Brasilien gehören und über die kaum etwas bekannt zu sein scheint: der Fernando de Noronha-Archipel und die Sankt-Peter-und-Sankt-Pauls-Felsen, die sich beide nahe des Äquators befinden sowie Trindade & Martim Vaz nahe des südlichen 20. Breitengrades.

Interessanterweise sind von diesen Inselgruppen ganze vier Landvogelarten bekannt, von denen zumindest drei wirklich einheimisch und endemisch sind: der Noronha-Olivtyrann (Elaenia ridleyana Sharpe) (Tyrannidae), die ausgestorbene Noronha-Ralle (cf. Rallus sp.) (Rallidae), der Schmalschnabelvireo (Vireo gracilirostris Sharpe) (Vireonidae) und die Noronha-Ohrflecktaube (Zenaida auriculata ssp. noronha Sharpe) (Columbidae), allesamt auf dem größten Archipel, Fernando de Noronha, beheimatet. 

Hinzu kommen zwei mehr oder weniger hypothetische Formen für die zweigrößte Inselgruppe, Trindade & Martim Vaz: eine Taubenform, die nur von einem der ersten Besucher der Insel Trindade am Ende des 17. Jahrhunderts erwähnt wird, sowie, derzeit noch rein hypothetisch, aber sehr wahrscheinlich, eine Rallenform, ebenfalls für diese eine Insel.

Auf keiner der Inseln scheinen bisher ernsthafte Ausgrabungen stattgefunden zu haben, solche Ausgrabungen würden mit einiger Sicherheit weitere heute ausgestorbene Vogelformen zum Vorschein bringen.

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Quellen:

[1] Robert Cushman Murphy: The birdlife of Trinidad Islet. The Auk 32(3): 332-348. 1915
[2] S. L. Olson: Natural history of vertebrates on the Brazilian islands of the mid South Atlantic. National Geographic Society Research Reports 13: 481-492. 1981
[3] Ruy José Válka Alves; Nílber Gonçalves da Silva: Três Séculos de História Natural na Ilha da Trindade com Comentários Sobre Sua Conservação. Smashwords 2016

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bearbeitet: 05.05.2022

Pseudowissenschaftlicher Unsinn

Ich hatte mir eigentlich geschworen, nie wieder D. P.s Pterosaur Heresies-Webseite zu besuchen, aber nun ja, mir war langweilig ….

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Am 26. Januar 2022 schreibt er etwas über den Blaubrustpipra.:  

Blaubrustpipra (Chiroxiphia caudata (Shaw))

Foto: Dario Sanches

(under creative commons license (2.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

***

Chrioxiphia [sic], the blue manakin, enters the LRT with its cuckoo relatives

Übersetzung:

Chrioxiphia, der Blaubrustpipra, betritt den LRT mit seinen Kuckucksverwandten

***

Chrioxiphia [sic] caudata (Shaw and Nodder 1793; 15cm) is the blue manakin, native to the Amazon. Many of the skull bones are fused. Phylogenetically (Fig. 2) manakins and their relatives are neotonous descendants of larger, long-legged ancestors like the South American seriema (Cariama) and its sister the flamingo (Phoenicopterus).

Übersetzung:

Chrioxiphia caudata (Shaw und Nodder 1793; 15 cm) ist der Blaubrustpipra, der im Amazonas beheimatet ist. Viele der Schädelknochen sind verschmolzen. Phylogenetisch (Abb. 2) sind Manakins und ihre Verwandten neotone Nachkommen größerer, langbeiniger Vorfahren wie der südamerikanischen Seriema (Cariama) und ihrer Schwester, dem Flamingo (Phoenicopterus).

Uff, okay.

Nun, erst einmal lautet der Gattungsname der Art Chiroxiphia und nicht Chrioxiphia ….

Verschmolzene Schädelknochen stellen nicht wirklich irgendein relevantes Verwandtschaftsmerkmal dar, Vögel haben tatsächlich sehr viele verschmolzene Knochen, z.B. einige der Bein- oder Fußknochen. Pipras und Leierschwänze gehören innerhalb der Passeriformes zu je verschiedenen Unterordnungen, nämlich den Tyranni und den Passeri, sie sind damit in etwa so nah miteinander verwandt wie z.B. die Spechte mit den Tukanen. Seriemas und Flamingos sind nicht näher miteinander verwandt und stammen von unterschiedlichen Vorfahren ab, die sich schon sehr früh in der Stammesgeschichte der Vögel voneinander getrennt haben, vermutlich schon im Paläozän.

***

Jungle-dwelling Chrioxiphia [sic] is related to jungle-dwelling Menura (the lyrebird) from Australia and jungle-dwelling Musophaga from Africa, these showy, colorful birds probably split phylogenetically prior to the Early Cretaceous appearance of the Atlantic Ocean. Few cuculids are long distance flyers. The showy birds in this clade prefer their jungles to crossing oceans.

Übersetzung:

Dschungelbewohnender Chrioxiphia ist mit dem im Dschungel lebenden Menura (dem Leierschwanz) aus Australien und dem im Dschungel lebenden Musophaga aus Afrika verwandt, diese auffälligen, farbenfrohen Vögel teilten sich wahrscheinlich phylogenetisch vor dem Erscheinen des Atlantischen Ozeans in der frühen Kreidezeit. Nur wenige Cuculiden sind Langstreckenflieger. Die auffälligen Vögel dieser Gruppe ziehen ihre Dschungel dem Überqueren von Ozeanen vor.

Das verschiedene Vogelformen Dschungel bewohnen sagt rein gar nichts über ihre Verwandtschaft aus. Die Gattung Musophaga gehört zu den Turakos, einer ebenfalls recht alten Vogelordnung, die nicht näher mit den Passeriformes verwandt ist; nur weil all diese Vögel bunt gefärbt sind und Wälder bewohnen, macht sie dies nicht zu Verwandten! Diese Vogelordnungen haben sich auch nicht in der frühen Kreidezeit voneinander getrennt, das würde nämlich bedeuten, dass sie oder ihre Vorfahren bereits im Jura existiert haben müssten, dem ist aber nicht so, zu jener Zeit gab es gerade einmal die allerersten „Vogel-Versuche“ à la Archaeopteryx! Kuckucksverwandte? Keiner der bis hier erwähnten Vögel ist mit den Kuckucksvögeln verwandt …, davon abgesehen sind tatsächlich einige Kuckucksvögel sehr wohl Zugvögel, nämlich all die Arten, die in den gemäßigten Zonen der Erde leben, und wieso sollten diese Vögel Ozeane überqueren, wenn es genügend Landbrücken gab oder gibt, die die Kontinente miteinander verbinden? 

*** 

In the LRT giant lightless [sic] South American terror birds are more closely related to African secretary birds (Sagittarius). Traditionally Cariama has been cherry-picked for that role, but Cariama is closer to flamingos and lyrebirds …. According to results recovered by the LRT the phylogenetic split of secretary birds from terror birds must have also occurred before the appearance of the Atlantic Ocean. So in the Early Cretaceous of South America we should expect to find secretary bird bones someday. The value of this hypothesis, like any hypothesis, can be measured by its predictive value. Let’s see what happens.

Übersetzung:

Im LRT sind riesige flugunfähige südamerikanische Terrorvögel näher mit afrikanischen Sekretären (Sagittarius) verwandt. Traditionell wurde Cariama für diese Rolle ausgewählt, aber Cariama steht Flamingos und Leierschwänzen näher …. Nach den vom LRT gewonnenen Ergebnissen muss die phylogenetische Trennung von Sekretärvögeln und Terrorvögeln auch vor dem Erscheinen des Atlantischen Ozeans stattgefunden haben. In der frühen Kreidezeit Südamerikas sollten wir also damit rechnen, eines Tages Sekretärknochen zu finden. Der Wert dieser Hypothese kann wie jede Hypothese an ihrem Vorhersagewert gemessen werden. Mal sehen was passiert.

Nein, der Sekretär ist nicht mit den Seriemas verwandt, beide haben nur ähnliche Lebensweisen und weisen daher einen ähnlichen Körperbau auf, dies nennt man konvergente Evolution, ein Konzept, dass D. P. nicht begreift, was er wirklich immer und immer wieder unter Beweis stellt! Auch diese beiden Vogelgruppen gab es noch nicht in der Kreidezeit, erst recht nicht in der unteren Kreidezeit, sie können sich also ebenfalls nicht während dieser Zeit aufgespalten haben! Niemand wird in Unterkreide-Lagerstätten Südamerikas Knochen von Sekretären finden, es wäre schon absolut verwunderlich überhaupt Knochen von Neornithes zu finden, da deren erste Vertreter nämlich überhaupt erst in der Oberkreide auftauchen. Der Wert dieser Hypothese, wenn es denn überhaupt eine ist, ist gleich Null.

Der Blaubrustpipra ist ein Vertreter der suboscinen Sperlingsvögel, also der Unterordnung Tyranni, er ist somit ein Vertreter der vermutlich zweitjüngsten der drei heute noch existierenden Unterordnungen der Sperlingsvögel, er ist nicht mit den Kuckucksvögeln verwandt, und dies gilt erst recht für alle anderen der oben genannten Arten, Gattungen und Familien.

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bearbeitet: 05.05.2022

Fossile Anseriformes

Family incertae sedis

Conflicto antarcticus Tambussi et al.

Eoneornis australis Ameghino

Eutelornis patagonicus Ameghino

Kookne yeutensis Novas et. al. (?)

Naranbulagornis khun Zelenkov

„Oxyura“ doksana Mlíkovský

Palaeopapia eous Harrison & Walker
Palaeopapia hamstaeadiensis Harrison & Walker

Paracygnopterus scotti Harrison & Walker

Paranyroca magna Miller & Compton

Petropluvialis simplex Harrison & Walker

Anatidae

Afrocygnus chauvireae Louchart, Vignaud, Likius, Mackaye & Brunet

Aix praeclara Zelenkoy & Kurochkin

Aldabranas cabri Harrison & Walker

Allgoviachen tortonica Mayr, Lechner & Böhme [7]

Aminornis excavatus Ameghino

Anabernicula gracilenta Ross
Anabernicula oregonensis Howard

Anas amotape Campbell
Anas apscheronica Burchak-Abramovich
Anas basaltica Bayer
Anas crassa Milne-Edwards
Anas isarensis Lambrecht
Anas itchtucknee McCoy
Anas kurochkini Zelenkov & Panteleyev
Anas luederitzensis Lambrecht
Anas macroptera Milne-Edwards
Anas meyeri Milne-Edwards
Anas pachyscelus Wetmore
Anas risgoviensis von Ammon
Anas robusta Milne-Edwards
Anas sanctaehelenae Campbell
Anas schneideri Emslie
Anas skalicensis Bayer
Anas soporata Kurochkin
Anas talarae Campbell

Ankonetta larriestrai Cenizo & Agnolín

Annakacygna hajimei Matsuoka & Hasegawa [6]
Annakacygna yoshiiensis Matsuoka & Hasegawa [6]

Anser arenosus Bickart
Anser arizonae Bickart
Anser atavus Fraas
Anser azerbaidzhanicus Serebrovskii
Anser cygniformis Fraas
Anser devjatkini Kuročkin
Anser djuktaiensis Zelenkov & Kurochkin [4]
Anser eldaricus Burchak-Abramovich & Gadzyev
Anser oeningensis (Meyer)
Anser pratensis (Short)
Anser pressus (Brodkorb)
Anser tchikoicus Kuročkin
Anser thompsoni Martin & Mengel
Anser thraceiensis Burchak-Abramovich & Nikolov

Anserobranta robusta (Milne-Edwards)
Anserobranta tarabukinii (Kurochkin & Ganea)

Archaeocycnus lacustris De Vis

Australotadorna alecwilsoni Worthy

Aythya denesi (Kessler)

Branta dickeyi Miller
Branta esmeralda (Burt)
Branta howardae Miller
Branta hypsibata (Cope)
Branta propinqua Shufeldt
Branta thessaliensis Boev & Koufos
Branta woolfendeni Bickart

Cayaoa bruneti Tonni

Chendytes milleri Howard

Chenoanas asiatica Zelenkov et al.
Chenoanas deserta Zelenkov
Chenoanas sansaniensis (Milne-Edwards)

Chenopis nanus De Vis

Cousteauvia kustovia Zelenkov [1]

Cygnavus formosus Kurochkin
Cygnavus senckenbergi Lambrecht

Cygnopterus affinis (Van Beneden)

Cygnus atavus (Fraas)
Cygnus csakvarensis Lambrecht
Cygnus equitum Bate
Cygnus falconeri Parker
Cygnus hibbardi Brodkorb
Cygnus lacustris (De Vis)
Cygnus liskunae (Kuročkin)
Cygnus mariae Bickart
Cygnus paloregonus Cope
Cygnus pristinus Kurochkin
Cygnus sp. ‘Dursunlu, Turkey’
Cygnus verae Boev

Dendrochen robusta Miller

Dunstanetta johnstoneorum Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Eonessa anaticula Wetmore

Eremochen russelli Brodkorb

Garganornis ballmanni H. J. M. Meyer

Guguschia nailiae Aslanova & Burczak-Abramovicz

Loxornis clivus Ameghino

Manuherikia douglasi Worthy, Tennyson, Hand & Scofield
Manuherikia lacustrina Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas
Manuherikia minuta Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas
Manuherikia primadividua Worthy et al. [2]

Matanas enrighti Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Megalodytes morejohni Howard

Mergellus mochanovi Zelenkov & Kurochkin

Mionetta blanchardi (Milne-Edwards)
Mionetta consobrina (Milne-Edwards)
Mionetta eversa (Wetmore)
Mionetta natator (Milne-Edwards)

Miotadorna catrionae Tennyson et al. [5]
Miotadorna sanctibathansi Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Nettapus anatoides Depéret

Nogusunna conflictoides Zelenkov

Oxyura bessomi Howard
Oxyura hulberti Emslie
Oxyura zapatanima Alvarez

Pinpanetta fromensis Worthy
Pinpanetta tedfordi Worthy
Pinpanetta vickersrichae Worthy

Protomelanitta bakeri Stidham & Zelenkov
Protomelanitta gracilis Zelenkov

Romainvillia kazakhstanensis Zelenkov
Romainvillia stehlini
 Ledebinsky

Saintandrea chenoides Mayr & De Pietri

Sharganetta mongolica Zelenkov

Sinanas diatomas Yeh

Telornis impressus Ameghino

Tirarinetta kanuka Worthy

Anhimidae

Chaunoides antiquus Alvarenga

Anseranatidae

Anatalavix oxfordi Olson
Anatalavis rex (Shufeldt)

Anserpica kiliani Mourer-Chauviré

Eoanseranas handae Worthy & Scanlon

Brontornithidae

Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat

Presbyornithidae

Bumbalavis anatoides Zelenkov [3]

Haedonornis hantoniensis Harrison & Walker

Presbyornis isoni Olson
Presbyornis mongoliensis Kurochkin & Dyke
Presbyornis pervetus Wetmore
Presbyornis recurvirostrus Hardy

Telmabates antiquus Howard
Telmabates howardae Cracraft

Teviornis gobiensis Kurochkin et al.

Wilaru prideauxi De Pietri et al.
Wilaru tedfordi Boles et al.

Zhylgaia aestiflua Nessov

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Quellen:

[1] Nikita Zelenkov: The oldest diving anseriform bird from the late Eocene of Kazakhstan and the evolution of aquatic adaptations in the intertarsal joint of waterfowl. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 65 (4): 733-742. 2020
[2] Trevor H. Worthy; R. Paul Scofield; Steven W. Salisbury; Suzanne J. Hand; Vanesa L. De Pietri; Jacob C. Blokland; Michael Archer: A new species of Manuherikia (Aves: Anatidae) provides evidence of faunal turnover in the St Bathans fauna, New Zealand. Geobios. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2021.08.002 2021
[3] Nikita V. Zelenkov: A revision of the Paleocene-Eocene Mongolian Presbyornithidae (Aves: Anseriformes). Paleontological Journal 55(3): 83-91. 2021
[4] N. V. Zelenkov; G. G. Boeskorov: Dyuktai Goose (Anser djuktaiensis) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) from the Pleistocene of central Yakutia. Biological Sciences 499: 99-102. 2021
[5] Alan J. D. Tennyson; Liam Greer; Pascale Lubbe; Felix G. Marx; Marcus D. Richards; Simone Giovanardi; Nicolas J. Rawlence: A new species of large duck (Aves: Anatidae) from the Miocene of New Zealand. Taxonomy 2(1): 136-144. 2022
[6] Hiroshige Matsuoka; Yoshikazu Hasegawa: Annakacygna, a new genus for two remarkable flightless swans (Aves, Anatidae, Cygnini) from the Miocene of Gunna, central Japan: with a note on the birds‘ food niche shift and specialization of wings for parental care. Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History 26: 1-30. 2022
[7] Gerald Mayr; Thomas Lechner; Madelaine Böhme: Nearly complete leg of an unusual shelduck-sized Anseriformes bird from the earliest late Miocene hominid locality Hammerschmiede (Germany). Historical Biology, DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2022.2045285. 2022

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bearbeitet: 25.04.2022

Federn …

… unbekannter Herkunft, fotografiert im Wald bei Tabarz / Thüringen

*********************

bearbeitet: 10.04.2022

Fossile Casuariiformes

Casuariidae

Casuarius lydekkeri Rothschild [1]

Dromaius arleyekweke Yates & Worthy [3]
Dromaius ocypus (Miller) [3]

Emuarius gidju (Patterson & Rich) [2]
Emuarius guljaruba (Boles) [2]

*********************

Quellen:

[1] P. V. Rich; M. Plane; N. Schroeder: A pygmy cassowary (Casuarius lydekkeri) from late Pleistocene bog deposits at Pureni, Papua New Guinea. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 10(4): 377-389. 1988
[2] Walter E. Boles: A new emu (Dromaiinae) from the Late Oligocene Etadunna Formation. Emu 101(4): 317-321. 2001
[3] A. M. Yates; T. E. Worthy: A diminutive species of emu (Casuariidae: Dromaiinae) from the late Miocene of the Northern Territory, Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 39(4): 1-15. 2019

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bearbeitet: 10.04.2022

Zealandornis relictus Worthy et al.

Dieser Vogel lebte in Neuseeland vor 19 bis 16 Millionen Jahren, ist bisher aber nur anhand eines Knochenbruchstücks bekannt.

eine höchstspekulative Rekonstruktion

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy; R. Paul Scofield; Steven W. Salisbury; Suzanne J. Hard; Vanesa L. De Pietri; Michael Archer: Two new neoavian taxa with contrasting palaeobiogeographical implications from the early Miocene St Bathans Fauna, New Zealand. Journal of Ornithology http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-022-01981-6. 2022

*********************

bearbeitet: 08.03.2022

Zealandornithidae – eine neue fossile Familie neuseeländischer Vögel

Es ist eine einigermaßen bekannte Tatsache, dass Neuseeland auch heute noch einige Reliktpopulationen ansonsten längst ausgestorbener Lebensformen beherbergt, dies war aber bereits in der Vergangenheit so.

Die fossile Fauna der St Bathans-Fundstelle hat nun eine weitere solche Reliktlinie hervorgebracht, die Familie der „Zealandia-Vögel“, benannt anhand eines distalen Endstücks eines Humerus eines Vogels, der sich keiner bekannten Familie zuordnen lässt (Zealandornis relictus Worthy et al.). [1]

Dieser Vogel dürfte in etwa die Größe eines durchschnittlichen Finken erreicht haben und könnte mit den Mausvögeln verwandt gewesen sein, ohne dabei zu den Mausvögeln selbst zu gehören. Es ist möglich, dass seine Familie gondwanischen Ursprungs ist und in Neuseeland ihr letztes Refugium gefunden hatte, oder, wie etliche andere neuseeländische Vogelformen auch, ursprünglich aus Australien zugewandert ist. Wie so oft gilt auch hier, es sind weitere Funde notwendig um genauere Angaben zum Aussehen und zu den Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen dieser Art/Familie zu machen. [1]

Eine Rekonstruktion ist derzeit nicht wirklich möglich, bzw. wäre rein spekulativ.

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy; R. Paul Scofield; Steven W. Salisbury; Suzanne J. Hard; Vanesa L. De Pietri; Michael Archer: Two new neoavian taxa with contrasting palaeobiogeographical implications from the early Miocene St Bathans Fauna, New Zealand. Journal of Ornithology http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-022-01981-6. 2022

*********************

bearbeitet: 08.03.2022

Fossile Aegotheliformes [1]

Aegothelidae

Aegotheles zealandivetus Worthy et al. [2]

Quipollornis koniberi Rich & McEvey 

*********************

Quellen:

[1] Albert Chen; Daniel J. Field: Phylogenetic definitions for Caprimulgimorphae (Aves) and major constituent clades under the International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature. Vertebrate Zoology 70(4): 571-585. 2020
[2] Trevor H. Worthy; R. Paul Scofield; Steven W. Salisbury; Suzanne J. Hard; Vanesa L. De Pietri; Michael Archer: Two new neoavian taxa with contrasting palaeobiogeographical implications from the early Miocene St Bathans Fauna, New Zealand. Journal of Ornithology http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-022-01981-6. 2022

*********************

bearbeitet: 08.03.2022

How Birds evolve: What Science reveals about their Origin, Lives & Diversity

Douglas J. Futuyma: How Birds evolve: What Science reveals about their Origin, Lives & Diversity. Princeton University Press 2021

*********************

Auf dieses Buch wurde ich durch die Twitter-Beiträge eines Ornithologen aufmerksam, allerdings hätte ich mir den Kauf sparen können, denn es ist dermaßen wissenschaftlich trocken geschrieben, dass man beim Lesen immer wieder einzuschlafen droht.

Für Ornithologen, die sich für statistische Werte, DNA-Gedöhns und derlei Dinge interessieren mag das Buch das Richtige sein, ich selbst habe es (vermutlich, ich bin mir nicht sicher) komplett durchgelesen, und kann mich an nichts davon mehr erinnern.

Besser beraten ist man als normalsterblicher Hobby-Ornithologe, meiner Meinung nach, tatsächlich mit John Reillys „The Ascent of Birds: How modern Science is revealing their Story“ aus dem Jahr 2018, welches sich mit derselben Thematik beschäftigt und hierzu tatsächlich oft auch dieselben Beispiele heranzieht, dabei aber durchweg wirklich spannend und interessant geschrieben ist.

Ein kleiner Vermerk noch: digitale Fotos, auf denen durch die Kamera automatisch ein Aufnahmedatum vermerkt ist, sollte man für ein Buch nicht verwenden, so etwas wirkt einfach, nun ja, hässlich.

*********************  

bearbeitet: 29.03.2022

Fossile Strigiformes

Family incertae sedis

Primoptynx poliotauros Mayr, Gingerich & Smith [5]

Heterostrigidae

Heterostrix tatsinensis Kurochkin & Dyke

Ogygoptyngidae

Ogygoptynx wetmorei Rich & Bohaska

Palaeoglaucidae

Palaeoglaux artophoron Peters
Palaeoglaux perrierensis Mourer-Chauviré

Protostrigidae

Eostrix gulottai Mayr
Eostrix martinellii Wetmore
Eostrix mimica (Wetmore)
Eostrix tsaganica Kurochkin & Dyke
“Eostrix” vincenti Harrison

Minerva antiqua (Shufeldt)
Minerva californiensis (Howard)
Minerva leptosteus (Marsh)
Minerva lydekkeri Shufeldt
Minerva saurodosis Wetmore

Oligostrix rupeliensis Fischer

Sophiornithidae

Berruornis halbedeli Mayr
Berruornis orbisantiqui Mourer-Chauviré

Palaeobyas cracrafti Mourer-Chauviré

Palaeotyto cadurcensis Mouer-Chauviré

Sophiornis quercynus Mourer-Chauviré

Strigidae

Aegolius funereus (L.)

Alasio collongensis (Ballmann)

Asio brevipes Ford & Murray
Asio ecuadoriensis Lo Coco, Agnolín & Carrión [2]
“Asio” henrici Milne-Edwards
Asio longaevus (Umanskaya)
Asio priscus Howard

Athene angelis Mourer-Chauviré
Athene cretensis Weesie
Athene cunicularia ssp. intermedia Feduccia
Athene megalopeza (Ford)
Athene noctua ssp. lunellensis Mourer-Chauviré
Athene noctua ssp. veta Jánossy
Athene trinacriae Pavia & Mourer-Chauviré
Athene vallgornerensis Guerra, Bover & Alcover [1]

Bubo binagadensis Burchak-Abramovich
Bubo bubo ssp. davidi Mourer-Chauviré
Bubo (?) florianae Kretzoi
Bubo ibericus Meijer, Pavia, Madurell-Malapeira & Alba
Bubo leakeyae Brodkorb & Mourer-Chauviré
Bubo lignitum Giebel
Bubo osvaldoi Arrendondo & Olson
Bubo perpasta Ballmann
Bubo scandiacus ssp. gallicus (Mourer-Chauviré)
Bubo sp. ‘Soave Cava Sud, Italy’
Bubo zeylonensis ssp. lamarmorae Mlíkovský

Glaucidium explorator Emslie
Glaucidium ireneae Pavia [3]

Intulula brevis (Ballmann)
Intulula tinnipara Mlíkovský

Margarobyas abronensis Zelenkov & Gonzáles [7]

Mioglaux debellatrix Mlíkovský
Mioglaux poirrieri (Milne-Edwards)

Miosurnia diurna Li et al. [8]

Ornimegalonyx ewingi Suárez [4]
Ornimegalonyx gigas Arredondo

Otus guildayi Brodkorb & Mourer-Chauviré
Otus wintershofensis (Ballmann)

Pulsatrix arredondoi Brodkorb

Strix brea Howard
“Strix” brevis Ballmann
Strix collongensis Ballman
Strix dakota A. H. Miller
Strix edwardsi (Ennouchi)
Strix intermedia Jánossy
Strix sp. ‘Ladds, USA’

Surnia capeki Jánossy
Surnia robusta Jánossy

Tytonidae

Basityto rummeli Mlíkovský

Miotyto montispetrosi Göhlich & Ballmann

Necrobyas arvernensis (Milne-Edwards)
Necrobyas harpax Milne-Edwards

Nocturnavis incerta (Milne-Edwards)

Prosybris antiqua (Milne-Edwards)
Prosybris media (Mourer-Chauviré)

Selenornis henrici (Milne-Edwards)

Tyto balearica (Mourer-Chauviré)
Tyto balearica ssp. cyrneichnusae Louchart
Tyto campiterrae Jánossy
Tyto gigantea Ballmann
Tyto jinniushanensis Hou
Tyto maniola Súarez & Olson [6]
Tyto mourerchauvireae Pavia
Tyto robusta Ballmann
Tyto sanctialbani (Lydekker)

*********************

References:

[1] Carmen Guerra; Pere Bover; Josep Antoni Alcover: A new species of extinct little owl from the Pleistocene of Mallorca (Balearic Islands). Journal of Ornithology 153(2): 347-354. 2012
[2] Gastón E. Lo Coco; Federico L. Agnolín; José Luis Román Carrión: Late Pleistocene owls (Aves, Strigiformes) from Ecuador, with the description of a new species. Journal of Ornithology 161: 713-721. 2020
[3] Marco Pavia: Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Cradle of Humankind during the Plio-Pleistocene transition, inferred from the analysis of fossil birds from Member 2 of the hominin-bearing site of Kromdraai (Gauteng, South Africa)  Quaternary Science Reviews. 248: Article 106532. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2020.106532. 2020
[4] William Suárez: Remarks on extinct giant owls (Strigidae) from Cuba, with description of a new species of Ornimegalonyx Arrendondo. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 140(4): 387-392. 2020
[5] Gerald Mayr; Philip D. Gingerich; Thierry Smith: Skeleton of a new owl from the early Eocene of North America (Aves, Strigiformes) with an accipitrid-like foot morphology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. doi: 10.1080/ 02724634.2020.1769116. 2020
[6] William Súarez; Storrs L. Olson: Systematics and distribution of the living and fossil small barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae). Zootaxa 4830(3): 544-564. 2020
[7] Nikita V. Zelenkov; Soraida F. Gonzáles: A new extinct species of Margarobyas (Strigiformes) and the evolutionary history of the endemic Cuban bare-legged owl (M. lawrencii). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2021.1995869. 2021
[8] Z. Li, T. A. Stidham; X. Zheng; Y. Wang; T. Zhao; T. Deng; Z. Zhou: Early evolution of diurnal habits in owls (Aves, Strigiformes) documented by a new and exquisitely preserved Miocene owl fossil from China. PNAS 119: e2119217119. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2119217119. 2022

*********************

edited: 29.03.2022

Fossile Piciformes

Family incertae sedis

“Neanis” kistneri (Feduccia) [1]

Piciformes gen. & sp. ‘Herrlingen, Deutschland’

Capitonidae

Capitonides europaeus Ballmann
Capitonides protractus Ballmann

Gracilitarsidae

Eutreptodactylus itaboraiensis Baird & Vickers-Rich (?)

Gracilitarsus mirabilis Mayr

Lybiidae

Pogoniolus (?) sp. ‘Kohfidisch, Österreich’

Miopiconidae

Miopico benimellalensis Mayr

Picavidae

Picavus litencicensis Mayr & Gregorova

Picidae

Australopicus nelsonmandelai Manegold & Louchart

Bitumenpicus minimus Campbell & Bochenski [2]

Breacopus garretti Campbell & Bochenski [2]

Dendrocopos major ssp. submajor Jánossy

Leiopicus praemedius (Jánossy)

Melanerpes shawi Campbell & Bochenski [2]

Palaeonerpes shorti Cracraft & Morony

Picus peregrinabundus Umanska
Picus pliocaenicus Kessler

Pliopicus brodkorbi Feduccia & Wilson

Ramphastidae (?)

Rupelramphastoides kopfi Mayr

Sylphornithidae

Jacamatia luberonensis Duhamel, Balme, Legal, Riamon & Louchart [1]

Oligosylphe mourerchauvireae Mayr & Smith

Palaegithalus cuvieri (Gervais)

Sylphornis bretouensis Mourer-Chauviré

*********************

Quellen:

[1] Anaïs Duhamel,  Christine Balme,  Stéphane Legal,  Ségolène Riamon, Antoine Louchart: An early Oligocene stem Galbulae (jacamars and puffbirds) from southern France, and the position of the Paleogene family Sylphornithidae. The Auk 137: 1-11. 2020
[2] Kenneth E. Campbell; Zbigniew M. Bochenski: A review of the woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes) from the asphalt deposits of Rancho La Brea, California, with the description of three new species. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 101: 1013-1026. 2021

*********************

bearbeitet: 25.03.2022

Passeriformer Vogel aus dem europäischen Miozän

Aus frühmiozänen (ca. 20 Millionen v.u.Z.) Ablagerungen in Europa, vor allem in Süddeutschland und Österreich sind zahlreiche passerine Vogelformen nachgewiesen, von denen nur wenig Material erhalten geblieben ist.

Leider sind die meisten davon wohl bis jetzt nicht weiter untersucht worden und demnach ist auch nicht näher bekannt, welchen Unterordnungen sie womöglich zuzuordnen sind (aus dem Oligozän, das dem Miozän vorangeht, sind aus Europa nur suboscine Sperlingsvögel (Tyranni) bekannt, die es hier heute überhaupt nicht mehr gibt), deswegen wäre es sehr interessant mehr über all diese fossilen Formen zu erfahren.

Der hier abgebildete Vogel ist nur als „Passerum gen. species A“ benannt.

zu Lebzeiten etwa so groß wie ein Goldhähnchen (Regulus sp.), ist nur anhand eines Flügelknochens bekannt

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Peter Ballmann: Die Vögel aus der altburdigalen Spaltenfüllung von Wintershof (West) bei Eichstätt in Bayern. Zitteliana 1: 5-60. 1969

*********************

bearbeitet: 23.03.2022

Fossile Accipitriformes

Family incertae sedis

Aviraptor longicrus Mayr & Hurum [3]

Accipitridae

Anchigyps voorhiesi Zhang, Feduccia & James

Apatosagittarius terrenus Feduccia & Voorhies

Archaehierax sylvestris Mather, Lee, Camens & Worthy [6]

Buteo dundasi Degrange et al. [5]
Buteo sanfelipensis Suárez [3]

Buteogallus royi Suárez [4]

Garganoaetus freudenthali Ballmann
Garganoaetus murivorus Ballmann

Gigantohierax itchei Suárez [4]

Gypaetus georgii Sánchez-Marco [7]

Gyps bochenskii Boev
Gyps melitensis Lydekker

Neogyps errans Miller

Neophron lolis Sánchez-Marco [7]

Neophrontops americanus Miller
Neophrontops slaughteri Feduccia
Neophrontops vallecitoensis Howard
Neophrontops vetustus Wetmore

Palaeoplancus dammanni Mayr & Perner [1]

Vinchinavis paka Tambussi et al. [2]

Horusornithidae

Horusornis vianeyliaudae Mourer-Chauviré

Pandionidae

Pandion homalopteron Warter
Pandion lovensis Becker
Pandion pannonicus Kessler

Pandionidae gen. & sp. ‚Bad Münster am Stein, Deutschland‘

Sagittariidae

Amanuensis pickfordi Mourer-Chauviré

Pelargopappus magnus Milne-Edwards

*********************

References:

[1] Gerald Mayr; Thomas Perner: A new species of diurnal birds of prey from the late Eocene of Wyoming (USA) – one of the earliest New World records of the Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, and allies). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie – Abhandlungen 297(2): 205 – 215. 2020
[2] Claudia P. Tambussi; Federico J. Degrange; Patricia L. Ciccioli; Francisco Prevosti: Avian remains from the Toro Negro Formation (Neogene), Central Andes of Argentina. Journa of South American Earth Sciences 2020
[3] Gerald Mayr; Jørn H. Hurum: A tiny, long-legged raptor from the early Oligocene of Poland may be the earliest bird-eating diurnal bird of prey. The Science of Nature 107(48): 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-020-01703-z
[4] William Suárez: The fossil avifauna of the tar seeps Las Breas de San Felipe, Matanzas, Cuba. Zootaxa 4780(1). 2020
[5] Federico J. Degrange, Claudia P. Tambussi, Matías L. Taglioretti, and Fernando A. Scaglia: A new buzzard from the late Pliocene of Argentina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00933.2021
[6] Ellen K. Mather; Michael S. Y. Lee; Aaron B. Camens; Trevor H. Worthy: An exceptional partial skeleton of a new basal raptor (Aves: Accipitridae) from the late Oligocene Namba formation, South Australia. Historical Biology – An International Journal of Paleobiology, September 2021
[7] Antonio Sánchez-Marco: Two new Gypaetinae (Accipitridae, Aves) from the late Miocene of Spain. Historical Biology. https://doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2022.2053117. 2022

*********************

bearbeitet: 21.03.2022

Fossile Pengornithiformes (?)

Pengornithidae

Chiappeavis magnapremaxillo O’Connor et al.

Eopengornis martini Wang et al.

Parapengornis eurycaudatus Hu et. al.

Pengornis houi Zhou, Clarke, & Zhang
Pengornis kompsosoura (Wang et al.) [1][2]

*********************

Quellen:

[2] Min Wang; Jingmai O’Connor; Thao Zhao; Yangon Pan; Xiaoting Zheng; Xioli Wang; Zhonghe Zhou: An Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird with a pintail. Current Biology 31(21): 4845-4852. 2021
[2] Mickey Mortimer: Neimengornis the chimaera, „Yuanchuavis“ is another Pengornis and more – October 2021 Database update. The Theropod Database Blog November 8, 2021

*********************

bearbeitet: 13.03.2022

***

Hinweis: Diese Ordnung ist vermutlich nicht gültig.

Fossile Eoenantiornithiformes

Family incertae sedis 

Cruralispennia multidonta Wang, O’Connor, Pan & Zhou

Eocathyornis walkeri Zhou

Eoenantiornis buhleri Hou, Zhou & Feduccia

Fortunguavis xiaotaizicus Wang, O’Connor & Zhou

Bohaiornithidae

Bohaiornis guoi Hu, Li, Hou & Xu 

Parabohaiornis martini Wang, Zhou, O’Connor & Zelenkov

Longusunguis kurochkini Wang, Zhou, O’Connor & Zelenkov

Musivavis amabilis Wang et al. [1]

Shenqiornis mengi Wang, O’Connor, Zhao, Chiappe, Gao & Cheng

Sulcavis geeorum O’Connor, Zhang, Chiappe, Meng, Quanguo & Di

Zhouornis hani Zhang, Chiappe, Han & Chinsamy

Cathayornithidae

Cathayornis yandica Zhou, Jin & Zhang

Houornis caudatus (Hou)

Noguerornis gonzalezi Lasaca-Ruiz

Sinornis santensis Sereno & Rao (?)

Vascornis hebeiensis Zhang, Ericson & Zhou

Longipterygidae

Bolouchia zhengi Zhou 

Longipteryx chaoyangensis Zhang, Zhou, Hou & Gu 

Longirostravis hani Hou, Chiappe, Zhang, Chuong

Rapaxavis pani Morschhauser, Varricchio, Gao, Liu, Wang, Cheng & Meng

Shanweiniao cooperorum O’Connor, Gao & Chiappe 

Shengjingornis yangi  Li, Wang, Zhang & Hou

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Xuri Wang; Andrea Cau; Xiaoling Luo; Martin Kundrát; Wensheng Wu; Shubin Ju; Zhen Guo; Yichuan Liu; Qiang Ji: A new Bohaiornithidae-like bird from the Lower Cretaceous of China fills a gap in enanthironithine diversity. Journal of Paleontology 96(1): 1-16. 2022

*********************

bearbeitet: 12.03.2022

***

Hinweis: Diese Ordnung ist vermutlich nicht gültig.

Antbirds & Ovenbirds: their lives and homes

Alexander F. Skutch: Antbirds & Ovenbirds: their lives and homes. University of Texas Press 1996

*********************

Der Autor beschreibt in seinem Buch seine eigenen Beobachtungen an den sogenannten Ameisen- und Töpfervögeln, die mit unzähligen Arten in Südamerika verbreitet sind. Diese Beobachtungen umfassen nahezu alles was man sich vorstellen kann und darüber hinaus vieles mehr.

Das Buch ist reichlich mit sehr schönen Schwarz-Weiß-Zeichnungen bebildert, die einige der zahlreichen Arten abbilden.

Das Ganze ist manchmal allerdings ein wenig langatmig, besonders wenn der Autor sich in allzu kleinlichen Details ergeht; und die Tatsache, dass er immer wieder nonchalant über seine Neststörungen schreibt (… Eier und Jungvögel aus dem Nest nehmen bzw. brütende Vögel vom Nest verscheuchen um hineinzuschauen …) ist für mich persönlich etwas befremdlich.

Davon abgesehen kann ich dieses Buch jedoch wärmstens empfehlen.

*********************  

bearbeitet: 09.03.2022

Palaeotodus escampsiensis Mourer-Chauviré

Diese Art stammt aus dem oberen Eozän Europas und ist der älteste bislang bekannte Vertreter seiner Familie, die heute nur noch mit fünf Arten in der Karibik verbreitet ist.

Die eozäne Form erreichte eine Größe von nur etwa 10 cm und ähnelte somit wohl sehr den rezenten Todi-Arten. [1]

mit den Flügelfedern bin ich mal wieder unzufrieden, mal sehen, vielleicht mache ich da noch was dran …

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Gerald Mayr; Norbert Micklich: New specimens of the avian taxa Eurotrochilus (Trochilidae) and Palaeotodus (Todidae) from the early Oligocene of Germany. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 84: 387-395. 2010

*********************

bearbeitet: 04.03.2022

Todus pulcherrimus Sharpe

Schöner Todi (Todus pulcherrimus Sharpe)

Von dieser ‚Art‘, beschrieben im Jahr 1874, habe ich gestern überhaupt zum allerersten Mal gehört, sie ist offenbar nur anhand eines einzigen Exemplars bekannt, dessen Herkunft nicht gesichert zu sein scheint.:

Hab. Jamaica [?]“ [1]

Dieses eine Exemplar befindet sich offenbar im British Museum in London, Großbritannien und unterscheidet sich von allen bekannten Todi-Arten durch die eher bläulich als grün gefärbten Oberseite sowie die kräftig gefärbte Unterseite (siehe Darstellung).

***

Bei diesem mysteriösen Vogel soll es sich aber um einen aberrant gefärbten Breitschnabeltodi (Todus subulatus Gray) handeln, einer Art, die von der Insel Hispaniola stammt.

*********************

Beide Formen sind auf dieser Darstellung zu sehen; zwei Breitschnabeltodis oben, ein Schöner Todi unten.

Depiction from: ‚R. Bowdler Sharpe: On the genus Todus. The Ibis 3(4): 344-355. 1874‘

(public domain)

*********************

Quelle:

[1] R. Bowdler Sharpe: On the genus Todus. The Ibis 3(4): 344-355. 1874

*********************

bearbeitet: 18.02.2022

Fossile Coraciiformes

Familie incertae sedis

Paracoracias occidentalis Clarke et al.

Quasisyndactylus longibrachis Mayr

Ueekenkcoracias tambussiae Degrange, Diego Pol, Pablo Puerta & Peter Wilf [3]

Alcedinidae

Halcyoninae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Coraciidae

Eurystomus beremendensis Kessler

Miocoracias chenevali
 Mourer-Chauviré, Peyrouse & Hugueney

Eocoraciidae

Eocoracias brachyptera Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré

Geranopteridae

Geranopterus alatus Milne-Edwards
Geranopterus bohemicus Mlikovský
Geranopterus milneedwardsi Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré

Momotidae

Momotidae gen. & sp. ‘Florida, USA’

Protornis glarniensis
 von Meyer (?)

Primobucconidae

Primobucco frugilegus Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré
Primobucco mcgrewi Brodkorb
Primobucco perneri Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré

Septencoracias morsensis
 Bourdon et al.

Todidae

Palaeotodus emryi Olson
Palaeotodus escampsiensis Mourer-Chauviré
Palaeotodus itardiensis Mourer-Chauviré

Todus sp. ‚MNHN 73.5395‘ [2]

***

Merops radobojensis (Meyer) ist offenbar anhand eines Fragments einer Ulna beschrieben worden, die sich tatsächlich nicht dieser Gattung zuordnen lässt sondern vielmehr von einem passerinen Vogel zu stammen scheint.

Ich habe den Namen daher entfernt. [1]

*********************

Quellen:

[1] Nikita V. Zelenkov: The revised avian fauna of Rudabànya (Hungary, Late Miocene). In: Paleontología y evolución de las Aves. Eds. C. Acosta Hospitaleche, F. L. Agnolin, N. Haidr, J. I. Noriega, C. P. Tambussi. Contribuciones del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales 7: 253-266. 2017
[2] N. V. Zelenkov; S. F. Gonzalez: The first fossil Today (Aves: Todidae) from Cuba. Paleontological Journal 54(4): 414-419. 2020
[3] Federico J. Degrange; Diego Pol; Pablo Puerta; Peter Wilf: Unexpected larger distribution of paleogene stem-rollers (AVES, CORACII): new evidence from the Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Scientific Reports 11: 1363. 2021

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bearbeitet: 17.02.2022

Fossile Cathartiformes

Cathartidae

Aizenogyps toomeyae Emslie

Brasilogyps faustoi Alvarenga

Breagyps clarki Miller

Cathartes emsliei Suárez & Olson [2]

Coragyps occidentalis Miller
Coragyps seductus Suárez [3]

Diatropornis ellioti (Milne-Edwards)

Dryornis hatcheri Degrange [5]
Dryornis pampeanus Moreno & Mercerat [4]

Geronogyps reliquus Campbell

Gymnogyps amplus Miller
Gymnogyps howardae Campbell
Gymnogyps kofordi Emslie
Gymnogyps varonai (Arredondo)

Hadrogyps aigialeus Emslie

Pampagyps imperator Agnolin et al. [1]

Perugyps diazi Stucchi & Emslie

Phasmagyps patritus Wetmore

Pleistovultur nevesi Alvarenga et al.

Pliogyps charon Becker
Pliogyps fisheri Tordoff

Sarcoramphus fisheri Campbell

Wingegyps cartellei Alvarenga & Olson

Teratornithidae

Aiolornis incredibilis (Howard)

Argentavis magnificens Campbell & Tonni

Cathartornis gracilis Miller

Taubatornis campbelli Olson & Alvarenga

Teratornis merriami Millner
Teratornis woodburnensis Campbell & Stenger

*********************

Quellen:

[1] Federico L. Agnolin; Federico Brissón Egli; Esteban Soibelzon; Sergio G. Rodriguez; Leopoldo H. Soibelzon; Facundo Iacona; David Piazza: A new large Cathartidae from the Quaternary of Argentina, with a review of the fossil record of condors in South America. Contribuciones Científicas del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” 7: 1-16. 2017
[2] William Suárez; Storrs L. Olson: A new fossil vulture (Cathartidae: Cathartes) from Quaternary asphalt and cave deposits in Cuba. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 140(3): 335-343. 2020
[3] William Suárez: The fossil avifauna of the tar seeps Las Breas de San Felipe, Matanzas, Cuba. Zootaxa 4780(1). 2020
[4] Federico J. Degrange; Claudia P. Tambussi; Matías L. Taglioretti; Fernando A. Scaglia: Phylogenetic affinities and morphology of the Pilocene cathartiform Dryornis pampeanus Moreno & Mercerat. Papers in Palaeontology 2021
[5] F. J. Degrange: A new species of Dryornis (Aves, Cathartiformes) from the Santa Cruz Formation (lower Miocene), Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/02724634.2021.2008411. 2022

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bearbeitet: 17.02.2022

Paläozän – das ‚verfluchte‘ Zeitalter

Das Paläozän, das ist die Zeitperiode die unmittelbar der Kreidezeit folgt, deren Ende durch das berühmteste Massenaussterben der Erdgeschichte gekennzeichnet ist, jenes Massenaussterben dem auch sämtliche non-avialen Dinosaurier zum Opfer fielen.

***

Nun, was wissen wir über die Vogelwelt dieser Zeitperiode? NICHTS! Nun ja, zumindest recht wenig.
Ich nenne das Paläozän ‚das verfluchte Zeitalter‘ da, wenngleich sehr wohl einige Überreste von Vögeln bekannt sind, so sind diese nahezu immer sehr fragmentarisch, sehr schlecht erhalten und oft genug nicht wirklich aussagekräftig … und, obendrein scheint es nahezu unmöglich zu sein irgendwelche Informationen über diese wenigen Reste zu finden.

Die meisten Vögel, die wir aus dieser Zeitperiode kennen waren wasserbewohnende Arten, as liegt vor allem daran, dass Überreste von Wasservögeln bessere Voraussetzungen zur Fossilisierung haben als Landvögel.

***

So, welche Arten kennen wir denn nun überhaupt? 

Hier eine kleine Aufzählung aller mir bekannten Formen, der Einfachheit halber habe ich sie in alphabetischer Reihenfolge angeordnet.:

Anseriformes (Gänsevögel)

Conflicto antarcticus
 Tambussi et al. 
Naranbulagornis khun Zelenkov
Presbyornis isoni Olson

Cariamaformes (Seriemaartige)

Gradiornis walbeckensis Mayr
Itaboravis elaphrocnemoides Mayr et al.
Paleopsilopterus itaboraiensis Alvarenga
cf. Cariamaformes gen. & sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

eine rätselhafte Form aus China, Qianshanornis rapax Mayr et al., gehört wohl auch hier her

cf. Charadriformes (Regenpfeiferartige)

drei sehr rätselhafte Formen, die entlang der K/T-Grenze gelebt haben:

Graculavus augustus
 Hope
Palaeotringa littoralis Marsh
Palaeotringa vagans Marsh

Coliiformes (Mausvögel)

Tsidiiyazhi abini Ksepka et al. 

eine bislang nicht beschriebene Form, MNT-11-7952 ‚Menat, Frankreich‘, erscheint mir persönlich ebenfalls sehr mausvogelartig

Gaviiformes (Seetaucher) 

cf. Colymbiculus sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

Gastornithiformes (ausgestorbene Familie)

Gastornis russelli Martin
Gastornis sp. ‚Louvois, Frankreich‘, [2016]
Gastornis sp. ‚Maret, Belgien‘

Gruiformes (Kranichvögel) 

Walbeckornis creber Mayr
Wanshuina lii Hou 
cf. Ralloidea gen. & sp. ‚Maret, Belgien‘
cf. Songziidae gen. & sp. ‚Menat, Frankreich‘

Leptosomatiformes (Kurole)

cf. Leptosomatiformes gen. & sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

Lithornithiformes (ausgestorbene Familie):

Fissuravis weigelti Mayr
Lithornis celetius Houde 
Lithornithidae gen. & sp. ‚Maret, Belgien‘
Lithornithidae gen. & sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

Odontopterygiformes (ausgestorbene Familie)

Pelagornithidae gen. & sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

Phaethornithiformes (Tropikvögel)

Lithoptila abdounensis Bourdon, E. et al.
Novacaesareala hungerfordi Parris & Hope 

sowie mindestens eine bislang noch unbeschriebe Form aus Neuseeland

Procellariiformes (Röhrennasen)

Tytthostonyx glauconiticus Olson & Parris (?)

Psittaciformes (Papageienvögel)

Calcardea junnei Gingerich 
Halcyornithidae/Messelasturidae gen. & sp. ‚Menat, Frankreich‘

Sphenisciformes (Pinguine)

Crossvallia unienwillia Tambussi et al.
Kumimanu biceae Mayr
Kupoupou stilwelli Blokland, Reid, Worthy, Tennyson, Clarke & Scofield
Muriwaimanu tuatahi Ando, Jones & Fordyce
Sequiwaimanu rosieae Mayr et al.
Waimanu manneringi Slack, Jones, Ando, Harrison, Fordyce, Arnason & Penny

Strigiformes (Eulenvögel)

Berruornis orbisantiqui Mourer-Chauviré
Ogygoptynx wetmorei Rich & Bohaska

cf. Struthioniformes (Strauße)

Remiornis heberti Lemoine

Vegaviiformes (ausgestorbene Familie)

Australornis lovei Mayr & Scofield

***

Zum Schluß folgt noch der seltsamste Vogel in dieser Liste, und einer der am wenigsten bekannten.: 

Qinornis paleocenica Xue aus China scheint ein Überbleibsel der kreidezeitlichen non-Neornithes zu sein und würde damit außerhalb aller noch existierenden Vogelarten stehen, da diese durchweg zu den Neornithes gehören.

***  

Nach einigen Recherchen habe ich herausgefunden das der angebliche Flamingoverwandte Scaniornis lundgreni Dames nur anhand von drei Knochenteilen bekannt ist, die nicht wirklich irgendeiner Vogelgruppe zugeordnet werden können und daher mittlerweile als nomen dubium gelten. Der fossile Nandu Diogenornis fragilis Alvarenga sowie der spechtartige Eutreptodactylus itaboraiensis Baird & Vickers-Rich stammen nicht aus dem Paläozän sondern aus dem Untereozän, ich habe die Arten daher aus der Auflistung entfernt. [5]

*********************

Quellen:

[1] Cécile Mourer-Chauviré; Estelle Bourdon: The Gastornis (Aves, Gastornithidae) from the Late Paleocene of Louvois (Marne, France). Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 135(2): 327-341. 2016
[2] Jacob C. Blokland; Catherine M. Reid; Trevor H. Worthy; Alan J. D. Tennyson; Julia A. Clarke & R. Paul Scofield: Chatham Island Paleocene fossils provide insight into the palaeobiology, evolution, and diversity of early penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes). Palaeontologia Electronica 22.3.78: 1-92. 2019
[3] Gerald Mayr; Thierry Smith: New Paleocene bird from the North Sea Basin in Belgium and france. Geologica Belgica 22(1-2): 35-46. 2019
[4] Gerald Mayr; Sophie Hervet; Eric Buffetaut: On the diverse and widely ignored Paleocene avifauna of Menat (Puy-de-Dôme, France): new taxonomic records and unusual soft tissue preservation. Geological Magazine 156(03): 1-13. 2019
[5] Mariana B. J. Picasso; Carolina Acosta Hospitaleche; María C. Mosto: An overview and update of South American and Antarctic fossil Rheidae and putative Ratitae (Aves, Palaeognathae). Journal of South American Earth Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2022.103731. 2022

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bearbeitet: 11.02.2022

WordPress-Update … mal wieder

Nach dem letzten, neuesten und BESTESTESTEN update EVER!!! kann ich nun offenbar die Textfarben nicht mehr ohne weiteres ändern … ich hasse WordPress!!! Mit jedem dieser Kack-Updates wird irgendein Mist verschlimmbessert, ich hab’s so satt!

Ich habe nur leider immer noch keine verschissene Alternative gefunden, Dreck verdammter!

Neu beschrieben – Rapa-Ralle

Rapa-Ralle (Gallirallus astolfoi Salvador, Anderson & Tennyson)

Rapa, nicht etwa Rapa Nui, die Osterinsel, sondern nur Rapa, manchmal auch Rapa Iti genannt, ist für mich persönlich einer jener Orte, mit dem ich Begriffe wie geheimnisvoll oder rätselhaft verbinde.

Von dieser Insel stammen einige subfossile Knochen, die in antiken ‚Küchen’abfällen gefunden wurden, darunter waren die Knochen dieser Ralle, aber auch einige andere, die zu einem Sittich (Cyanoramphus sp.) und zu einer Taube (Ducula sp.) gehören.

Zumindest die Ralle wurde nun beschrieben, sie gehört zu einer gigantischen Radiation einer einzigen Gattung, die allein im polynesischen Dreieck vermutlich mehrere hundert Arten umfasst hat, die alle bis auf eine einzige, die neuseeländische Weka (Gallirallus australis (Sparrman)), ausgerottet wurden! [1][2][3]

*********************

Quellen:

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006
[2] J. D. Tennyson; Atholl Anderson: Bird, reptile and mammal remains from archaeological sites on Rapa Island. In: Atholl Anderson; Douglas J. Kennett: Taking the High Ground; The archaeology of Rapa, a fortified island in remote East Polynesia. In: Terra Australis 37. 105-114. Canberra, ANU E Press 2012
[3] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Atholl Anderson; Alan J. D. Tennyson: An extinct new rail (Gallirallus, Aves: Rallidae) species from Rapa Island, French Polynesia. Taxonomy 1: 448-457. 2021

*********************

bearbeitet: 09.01.2022

The 902 birds of Polynesia

… eine Liste (in alphabetischer Reihenfolge) der 902 Arten und Unterarten von Brutvögeln innerhalb des polynesischen Dreiecks, einschließlich Fidschi, Macquarie Island, den Norfolk-Inseln sowie Motu Motiro Hiva (Sala y Gómez).

Ausgestorbene Formen sind fett geschrieben.

***

Acanthisittidae (endemische Familie)

Acanthisitta chloris ssp. chloris
Acanthisitta chloris ssp. granti

Dendroscansor decurvirostris

Xenicus gilviventris
Xenicus longipes ssp. longipes
Xenicus longipes ssp. stokesii
Xenicus longipes ssp. variabilis
Xenicus lyalli
Xenicus yaldwyni ssp. jagmi
Xenicus yaldwyni ssp. yaldwyni

Acanthizidae

Gerygone albofrontata
Gerygone igata
Gerygone modesta

Accipitridae

Accipiter fasciatus ssp. ?
Accipiter rufitorques

Aquila moorei

Buteo solitarius

Circus approximans
Circus dossenus
Circus teauteensis

Haliaeetus sp. ‘Hawaiian Islands’

Acrocephalidae

Acrocephalus aequinoctialis ssp. aequinoctialis
Acrocephalus aequinoctialis ssp. ‘pistor’
Acrocephalus aequinoctialis ssp. pistor ‘Tabuaeran’
Acrocephalus astrolabii
Acrocephalus atyphus ssp. atyphus
Acrocephalus atyphus ssp. niauensis
Acrocephalus atyphus ssp. palmarum
Acrocephalus caffer
Acrocephalus eremus
Acrocephalus familiaris ssp. familiaris
Acrocephalus familiaris ssp. kingi
Acrocephalus kerearako ssp. kaoko
Acrocephalus kerearako ssp. kerearako
Acrocephalus longirostris
Acrocephalus mendanae ssp. consobrinus
Acrocephalus mendanae ssp. dido
Acrocephalus mendanae ssp. fatuhivae
Acrocephalus mendanae ssp. mendanae
Acrocephalus musae ssp. garetti
Acrocephalus musae ssp. musae
Acrocephalus percernis ssp. aquilonis
Acrocephalus percernis ssp. idae
Acrocephalus percernis ssp. percenis
Acrocephalus percernis ssp. prostremus
Acrocephalus rimatarae
Acrocephalus sp. ‘Raivavae’

Acrocephalus taiti
Acrocephalus vaughani

Aegothelidae

Aegotheles novaezealandiae

Alcedinidae

Todiramphus chloris ssp. eximia
Todiramphus chloris ssp. marina
Todiramphus chloris ssp. regina
Todiramphus chloris ssp. sacra
Todiramphus chloris ssp. vitiensis
Todiramphus gambieri
Todiramphus gertrudae
Todiramphus godeffroyi
Todiramphus pealei ssp. manuae
Todiramphus pealei ssp. pealei

Todiramphus recurvirostris
Todiramphus ruficollaris
Todiramphus sanctus ssp. norfolkiensis
Todiramphus sanctus ssp. vagans
Todiramphus sp. ‘Rapa’
Todiramphus sp. ‘Rarotonga’
Todiramphus tutus ssp. atiu
Todiramphus tutus ssp. mauke
Todiramphus tutus ssp. tutus
Todiramphus venerates
Todiramphus youngi

Anatidae

Anas acuta (ssp. modesta) [C.N.1943]
Anas aucklandica

Anas chathamica
Anas chlorotis ssp.’Chatham Islands’
Anas chlorotis ssp. chlorotis
Anas gracilis
Anas laysanensis
Anas nesiotis
Anas rhynchotis ssp. variegata
Anas sp. ‘Macquarie’
Anas sp. ‘Viti Levu’
Anas superciliosa
Anas wyvilliana

Anatidae gen. & sp. ‘Large Hawai’i Goose’
Anatidae gen. & sp. ‘Supernumerary O’ahu Goose’

Aythya australis
Aythya novaeseelandiae

Biziura delautouri

Branta aff. hylobadistes ‘Kaua’i’
Branta aff. hylobadistes ‘O’ahu’
Branta hylobadistes
Branta rhuax
Branta sandvicensis

Chelychelynechen quassus

Chenonetta finschi
Chenonetta jubata [W.A.C.2016]

Cnemiornis calcitrans
Cnemiornis gracilis

Cygnus atratus ssp. atratus (?)
Cygnus sumnerensis ssp. chathamensis
Cygnus sumnerensis ssp. sumnerensis

Dendrocygna arcuata ssp. pygmaea
Dendrocygna sp. ‘Aitutaki’

Hymenolaimus malacorhynchus

Malacorhynchus scarletti

Mareca strepera ssp. couesi

Mergus australis
Mergus milleneri
Mergus sp. ‘New Zealand’

Oxyura vantetsi

Ptaiochen pau

Tadorna sp. ‘Chatham Islands’
Tadorna sp. ‘Kaua’i’
Tadorna tadornoides
Tadorna variegata

Talpanas lippa

Thambetochen chaulidous
Thambetochen xanion

Apodidae

Aerodramus leucophaeus
Aerodramus manuoi
Aerodramus ocistus ssp. gilliardi
Aerodramus ocistus ssp. ocistus
Aerodramus sawtelli
Aerodramus spodiopygius ssp. assimilis
Aerodramus spodiopygius ssp. spodiopygius
Aerodramus spodiopygius ssp. townsendi

Apterygidae (endemische Familie)

Apteryx australis ssp. ‘Haast’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘Mt. Cookson’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘Mt. Somers’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘North Fiordland’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘South Fiordland’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘Stewart Island’
Apteryx maxima
[L.D.S.2021]
Apteryx mantelli ssp. ‘Coromandel’
Apteryx mantelli ssp. ‘Eastern’
Apteryx mantelli ssp. ‘North Island’
Apteryx mantelli ssp. ‘Taranaki’
Apteryx owenii ssp. ‘North Island 1’
Apteryx owenii ssp. ‘North Island 2’

Apteryx owenii ssp. ‘South Island’
Apteryx rowi ssp. ‘North Island’
Apteryx rowi ssp. ‘Okarito’
Apteryx rowi ssp. ‘Tasman’

Apteryx sp. ‘South Island’

Aptornithidae (endemische Familie)

Aptornis defossor
Aptornis otodiformis

Ardeidae

Ardea modesta
Ardea novaehollandiae

Ardeidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Botaurus poiciloptilus

Butorides striata ssp. diminuta
Butorides striata ssp. patruelis

Egretta sacra

Ixobrychus novaezelandiae

Nycticorax caledonicus ssp. australasiae
Nycticorax caledonicus ssp. ‘Fiji’
Nycticorax kalavikai
Nycticorax nycticorax ssp. hoactli
Nycticorax sp. ”Eua’
Nycticorax sp. ‘Lifuka’
Nycticorax sp. ‘Mangaia’

Artamidae

Artamus mentalis
Artamus personatus

Callaeidae (endemische Familie)

Callaeas cinereus
Callaeas wilsoni

Heteralocha acutirostris

Philesturnus carunculatus
Philesturnus rufusater

Campephagidae

Lalage leucopyga ssp. leucopyga
Lalage maculosa ssp. futunae
Lalage maculosa ssp. keppeli
Lalage maculosa ssp. maculosa
Lalage maculosa ssp. mixta
Lalage maculosa ssp. nesophila
Lalage maculosa ssp. pumila
Lalage maculosa ssp. rotumae
Lalage maculosa ssp. tabuensis
Lalage maculosa ssp. vauana
Lalage maculosa ssp. whitmeei
Lalage maculosa ssp. woodi
Lalage sharpei ssp. sharpei
Lalage sharpei ssp. tenebrosa
Lalage sp. ‘Tonga’

Cettiidae

Horornis ruficapilla ssp. badiceps
Horornis ruficapilla ssp. castaneoptera
Horornis ruficapilla ssp. funebris
Horornis ruficapilla ssp. ruficapilla
Horornis sp.”Eua’

Charadriidae

Anarhynchus frontalis

Charadrius aquilonius
Charadrius bicinctus ssp. bicinctus
Charadrius bicinctus ssp. exilis
Charadrius melanops
Charadrius obscurus
Charadrius ruficapillus

Haematopus chathamensis
Haematopus finschi
Haematopus unicolor

Himatopus himatopus ssp. leucocephalus
Himatopus knudseni
Himatopus novaezelandiae

Thinornis novaeseelandiae

Vanellus novaehollandiae

Columbidae

Bountyphaps obsoleta

Caloenas canacorum
Caloenas maculata (?) [P.R.2020]
Caloenas sp. ‘Tonga’ [S.H.2019]

Chalcophaps indica ssp. rogersi

Columba vitiensis ssp. castaneiceps
Columba vitiensis ssp. ‘Tonga’
Columba vitiensis ssp. vitiensis

Columbidae gen. & sp. ‘Kamaka’

Didunculus placopedetes
Didunculus strigirostris

Ducula aurorae
Ducula david
Ducula galeata
Ducula harrisoni
Ducula lakeba
Ducula latrans
Ducula pacifica
Ducula shutleri [S.H.2019]
Ducula sp. ‘Rapa’
Ducula sp. ‘Viti Levu’
Ducula tihonireasini 

Hemiphaga chathamensis
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae
Hemiphaga spadicea

Macropygia arevarevauupa
Macropygia heana

Natunaornis gigoura

Pampusana erythropterus [M.B.2016]
Pampusana leonpascoi [M.B.2016]
Pampusana norfolciensis
[M.B.2016]
Pampusana nui
[M.B.2016]
Pampusana rubescens [M.B.2016]
Pampusana sp. ‚Karoraina‘ [F.D.B.1840]
Pampusana sp. 1 ‘Rurutu’ [M.B.2016]
Pampusana sp. 2 ‘Rurutu’
[M.B.2016]
Pampusana sp. ‘Tubuai’
[M.B.20165]
Pampusana stairi ssp. stairi [M.B.2016]
Pampusana stairi ssp. vitiensis [M.B.2016]

Ptilinopus chalcurus
Ptilinopus chrysogaster
Ptilinopus coralensis
Ptilinopus dupetithouarsii ssp. dupetithouarsii
Ptilinopus dupetithouarsii ssp. viridior
Ptilinopus goodwinii ssp. ‘Aitutaki’
Ptilinopus goodwinii ssp. byronensis
Ptilinopus goodwinii ssp. goodwinii
Ptilinopus huttoni
Ptilinopus insularis
Ptilinopus layardi
Ptilinopus luteovirens
Ptilinopus mercierii ssp. mercierii
Ptilinopus mercierii ssp. tristramii
Ptilinopus perousii ssp. mariae
Ptilinopus perousii ssp. perousii
Ptilinopus porphyraceus ssp. fasciatus
Ptilinopus porphyraceus ssp. graeffei
Ptilinopus porphyraceus ssp. porphyraceus
Ptilinopus purpuratus ssp. frater
Ptilinopus purpuratus ssp. purpuratus
Ptilinopus rarotongensis
Ptilinopus sp. ‘Lakeba’
Ptilinopus sp. ‘Mangaia’
Ptilinopus sp. ‘Tubuai’
Ptilinopus victor ssp. aureus
Ptilinopus victor ssp. victor

Tongoenas burleyi [D.W.S.2020]

Corvidae

Corvus antipodum ssp. antipodum
Corvus antipodum ssp. pycrofti
Corvus hawaiiensis
Corvus impluviatus
Corvus moriorum
Corvus sp. ‘Hawai’i 1’
Corvus sp. ‘Hawai’i 2’
Corvus sp. ‘Maui’
Corvus viriosus

Cuculidae

Cacomantis flabelliformis ssp. ‘Tonga’
Cacomantis flabelliformis ssp. simus

Chrysococcyx lucidus

Urodynamis taitensis

Dinornithidae (endemische Familie)

Dinornis novaezealandiae
Dinornis robustus

Diomedeidae

Diomedea antipodensis ssp. antipodensis
Diomedea antipodensis ssp. gibsoni
Diomedea epomophora
Diomedea exulans
Diomedea sanfordi
Diomedea sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Phoebastria albatrus
Phoebastria immutabilis
Phoebastria nigripes

Phoebetria palpebrata

Thalassarche bulleri ssp. bulleri
Thalassarche bulleri ssp. platei
Thalassarche chrysostoma
Thalassarche eremita
Thalassarche impavida
Thalassarche melanophris
Thalassarche salvini
Thalassarche steadi

Emeidae (endemische Familie)

Anomalapteryx didiformis

Emeus crassus

Euryapteryx curtus
Euryapteryx geranoides

Pachyornis australis
Pachyornis elephantopus
Pachyornis mappini

Estrildidae

Erythrura cyaneovirens
Erythrura kleinschmidti
Erythrura pealii

Falconidae

Falco cenchroides
Falco novaeseelandiae
Falco peregrinus ssp. nesiotes

Fregatidae

Fregata ariel
Fregata minor ssp. palmerstoni

Fringillidae

Aidemedia chascax
Aidemedia lutetiae
Aidemedia zanclops

Chloridops kona
Chloridops regiskongi
Chloridops sp. ‘Kaua’i’
Chloridops sp. ‘Maui’
Chloridops wahi

Ciridops anna
Ciridops sp. ‘O’ahu’
Ciridops tenax

Drepanidinae gen. & sp. ‘Unassigned Maui Finch’

Drepanis coccinea
Drepanis funerea
Drepanis pacifica

Dysmorodrepanis munroi

Hemignathus affinis
Hemignathus ellisianus
Hemignathus flavus
Hemignathus hanapepe
Hemignathus kauaiensis
Hemignathus lanaiensis
Hemignathus lucidus
Hemignathus munroi
Hemignathus obscurus
Hemignathus sagittirostris
Hemignathus sp. ‘Hawai’i’
Hemignathus sp. ‘Hawai’i Nukupu’u’
Hemignathus sp. ‘Maui’
Hemignathus stejnegeri
Hemignathus upupirostris
Hemignathus virens ssp. virens
Hemignathus virens ssp. wilsoni
Hemignathus vorpalis

Himatione freethi
Himatione sanguinea
Himatione sp. cf. sanguinea

Loxioides bailleui
Loxioides kikuchi
Loxioides sp. ‘Hawai’i’

Loxops caeruleirostris
Loxops coccineus
Loxops ochraceus
Loxops wolstenholmei

Magumma parva

Manucerthia mana

Melamprosops phaeosoma

Oreomystis bairdi

Orthiospiza howarthi

Palmeria dolei

Paroreomyza flammea
Paroreomyza maculata
Paroreomyza montana ssp. montana
Paroreomyza montana ssp. newtoni
Pseudonestor xanthophrys

Psittirostra psittacea
Psittirostra sp. ‘O’ahu’

aff. Psittirostra sp. ‚Additional Kauai Finch‘ [S.L.O. 1991]

Rhodacanthis flaviceps
Rhodacanthis forfex
Rhodacanthis litotes
Rhodacanthis palmeri
Rhodacanthis sp. ‚O’ahu‘ [H.F.J. 2005]

Telespiza aff. ypsilon ‘Maui’
Telespiza cantans
Telespiza persecutrix
Telespiza sp. ‘Hawai’i’
Telespiza ultima
Telespiza ypsilon

Vangulifer mirandus
Vangulifer neophasis

Xestospiza conica
Xestospiza fastigialis

Hirundinidae

Hirundo javanica ssp. subfusca
Hirundo neoxena

Hirundo sp. ‘Henderson Island’
Hirundo tahitica

Petrochelidon ariel

Hydrobatidae

Oceanodroma castro ssp. cryptoleucura
Oceanodroma tristrami

Lamproliidae

Lamprolia klinesmithi
Lamprolia victoriae

Laridae

Catharacta lonnbergii

Larus bulleri
Larus dominicanus
Larus scopulinus
Larus sp. ‘Kaua’i’
Larus utunui

Locustellidae

Megalurulus rufa ssp. cluniei
Megalurulus rufa ssp. rufa

Poodytes caudatus
Poodytes punctatus ssp. punctatus
Poodytes punctatus ssp. stewartiana
Poodytes punctatus ssp. vealeae
Poodytes punctatus ssp. wilsoni
Poodytes rufescens

Megalapterygidae (endemische Familie)

Megalapteryx didinus

Megapodiidae

Megapodiidae gen. & sp. ‘Tongatapu’

Megapodius alimentum
Megapodius amissus
Megapodius molistructor
Megapodius pritchardii ssp. ‘Niue’
Megapodius pritchardii ssp. pritchardii 
Megapodius sp. ‘Lau Islands’ 
Megapodius sp. ‘Ofu’
Megapodius sp. ‘Raoul Island’ 
Megapodius sp. ‘small’

Meliphagidae

Anthornis melanocephala
Anthornis melanura ssp. melanura
Anthornis melanura ssp. obscura
Anthornis melanura ssp. oneho

Foulehaio carunculatus
Foulehaio procerior
Foulehaio taviunensis

Gymnomyza brunneirostris
Gymnomyza samoensis
Gymnomyza viridis 

Myzomela chermesina
Myzomela jugularis
Myzomela nigriventris
Myzomela sp. ‘Tonga’

Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae ssp. chathamensis
Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae ssp. novaeseelandiae

Xanthotis provocator

Mohoidae (endemische Familie)

Chaetoptila angustipluma
Chaetoptila sp. ‘Maui Nui’
Chaetoptila sp. ‘narrow-billed’
Chaetoptila sp. ‘O’ahu’

Moho apicalis
Moho bishop
Moho braccatus
Moho nobilis
Moho sp. ‘Maui’

Mohouidae (endemische Familie)

Mohoua albicilla
Mohoua novaeseelandiae
Mohoua ochrocephala

Monarchidae

Monarcha dimidiata
Monarcha fluxus
Monarcha fortunae
Monarcha gambieranus
Monarcha heinei
Monarcha ibidis
Monarcha iphis
Monarcha keppeli
Monarcha lessoni ssp. lessoni
Monarcha lessoni ssp. orientalis
Monarcha mendozae ssp. mendozae
Monarcha mendozae ssp. motanensis
Monarcha mirus
Monarcha niger
Monarcha nigrogularis
Monarcha nukuhivae
Monarcha pomareus
Monarcha powelli
Monarcha sandwichensis (incl. ssp. bryani and ssp. ridgwayi)
Monarcha sclateri
Monarcha versicolor
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. buensis
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. compressirostris
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. layardi
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. nesiotes
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. pontifex
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. vatuanus
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. vitiensis
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. wiglesworthi
Monarcha whitneyi

Myiagra albiventris
Myiagra azureocapilla
Myiagra castaneigularis ssp. castaneigularis
Myiagra castaneigularis ssp. whitney
Myiagra sp. ”Eua’
Myiagra vanikorensis ssp. dorsalis
Myiagra vanikorensis ssp. kandavensis
Myiagra vanikorensis ssp. rufiventris
Myiagra vanikorensis ssp. townsendi

Motacillidae

Anthus novaeseelandiae ssp. aucklandicus
Anthus novaeseelandiae ssp. chathamensis
Anthus novaeseelandiae ssp. novaeseelandia
Anthus novaeseelandiae ssp. steindachneri

Nestoridae (endemische Familie)

Nestor chathamensis
Nestor meridionalis ssp. meridionalis
Nestor meridionalis ssp. septentrionalis
Nestor notabilis
Nestor productus

Strigops habroptila

Notiomystidae (endemische Familie)

Notiomystis cincta

Oceanitidae

Fregetta grallaria ssp. ?
Fregetta grallaria ssp. grallaria
Fregetta maoriana
Fregetta sp. ‚Marquesas‘ ? [A.C.2015]
Fregetta titan
Fregetta tropica

Garrodia nereis

Nesofregetta fuliginosa

Pelagodroma marina ssp. albiclunis
Pelagodroma marina ssp. maoriana

Oriolidae

Turnagra capensis ssp. capensis
Turnagra capensis ssp. minor
Turnagra tanagra

Pachycephalidae

Pachycephala flavifrons
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. ambigua
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. aurantiiventris
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. bella
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. graeffei
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. koroana
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. optata
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. torquata
Pachycephala jacquinoti
Pachycephala pectoralis ssp. xanthoprocta
Pachycephala vitiensis ssp. kandavensis
Pachycephala vitiensis ssp. lauana
Pachycephala vitiensis ssp. vitiensis

Pandionidae

Pandion cristatus (ssp. ?)

Pelecanoididae

Pelecanoides urinatrix ssp. chathamensis
Pelecanoides urinatrix ssp. exsul
Pelecanoides urinatrix ssp. urinatrix
Pelecanoides whenuahouensis

Petroicidae

Petroica australis ssp. australis
Petroica australis ssp. rakiura
Petroica chathamensis
Petroica dannefaerdi
Petroica longipes
Petroica macrocephala
Petroica marrineri
Petroica multicolor ssp. multicolor
Petroica pusilla ssp. ‘Ha’apai Islands’
Petroica pusilla ssp. becki
Petroica pusilla ssp. kleinschmidti
Petroica pusilla ssp. pusilla
Petroica pusilla ssp. taveunensis
Petroica toitoi
Petroica traversi

Phaethontidae

Phaethon lepturus ssp. dorotheae
Phaethon rubricauda ssp. roseotinctus
Phaethon rubricauda ssp. rothschildi
Phaethon rubricauda ssp. rubricauda

Phalacrocoracidae

Leucocarbo campbelli
Leucocarbo carunculata
Leucocarbo chalconotus

Leucocarbo colensoi
Leucocarbo featherstoni
Leucocarbo onslowi
Leucocarbo punctata ssp. punctata
Leucocarbo punctata ssp. steadi
Leucocarbo purpurascens
Leucocarbo ranfurlyi
Leucocarbo septentrionalis
Leucocarbo stewarti
Leucocarbo sulcirostris
Leucocarbo varius

Microcarbo melanoleucos ssp. brevirostris
Microcarbo melanoleucos ssp. melanoleucos

Phalacrocorax carbo ssp. novaehollandiae

Phasianidae

Coturnix novaezelandiae

Podicipedidae

Podiceps cristatus ssp. australis

Podilymbus podiceps

Poliocephalus rufopectus

Tachybaptus novaehollandiae ssp. ‘Fiji’
Tachybaptus novaehollandiae ssp. novaehollandiae

Procellariidae

Bulweria bulwerii

Daption capense ssp. australe

Fulmarus glacialoides

Halobaena caerulea

Macronectes giganteus
Macronectes halli

Pachyptila crassirostris ssp.  crassirostris
Pachyptila crassirostris ssp. pyramidalis
Pachyptila desolata ssp. banksia
Pachyptila sp. ‘Rapa Nui’
Pachyptila turtur
Pachyptila vittata

Procellaria aequinoctialis
Procellaria cinerea
Procellaria parkinsoni
Procellaria sp. ‘Rapa Nui’
Procellaria westlandica

Procellariidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi
Pseudobulweria rostrata
Pseudobulweria sp. ‘Mangareva’

Pterodroma alba
Pterodroma atrata
Pterodroma axillaris
Pterodroma brevipes
Pterodroma caledonica
Pterodroma cervicalis
Pterodroma cookii
Pterodroma externa
Pterodroma gouldi
Pterodroma heraldica
Pterodroma hypoleuca
Pterodroma imberis
Pterodroma inexpectata
Pterodroma jugabilis
Pterodroma lessonii
Pterodroma magentae
Pterodroma mollis
Pterodroma neglecta
Pterodroma nigripennis
Pterodroma pycrofti
Pterodroma sandwichensis
Pterodroma solandri
Pterodroma sp. (aff. lessoni/macroptera) ‘Rapa Nui’
Pterodroma sp. ‘Henderson Island’
Pterodroma sp. ‘Mangareva’
Pterodroma sp. ‘Raivavae’
Pterodroma sp. (small) ‘Ua Huka’
Pterodroma ultima

Puffinus assimilis ssp. assimilis
Puffinus assimilis ssp. elegans
Puffinus assimilis ssp. haurakiensis
Puffinus assimilis ssp. kermadecensis
Puffinus bailloni ssp. dichrous
Puffinus bulleri
Puffinus carneipes
Puffinus cf. gavia ‘Mangaia’
Puffinus gavia
Puffinus griseus
Puffinus huttoni
Puffinus myrtae
Puffinus nativitatus
Puffinus newelli
Puffinus pacificus ssp. chlororhynchus
Puffinus pacificus ssp. pacificus
Puffinus sp. ”Eua’
Puffinus spelaeus
Puffinus tenuirostris

Psittacidae

Cyanoramphus auriceps
Cyanoramphus cooki
Cyanoramphus erythrotis
Cyanoramphus forbesi
Cyanoramphus hochstetteri
Cyanoramphus malherbi
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae ssp. chathamensis
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae ssp. cyanurus
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae ssp. novaezelandiae
Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Campbell Islands’
Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Rapa’
Cyanoramphus ulietanus
Cyanoramphus unicolor
Cyanoramphus zealandicus

Eclectus infectus

Prosopeia personata
Prosopeia splendens
Prosopeia tabuensis ssp. atrogularis
Prosopeia tabuensis ssp. koroensis
Prosopeia tabuensis ssp. tabuensis
Prosopeia tabuensis ssp. taviunensis

Psittacidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Vini amabilis [B.T.S.2020]
Vini australis
Vini kuhlii
Vini peruviana
Vini sinotoi
Vini solitaria [B.T.S.2020]
Vini sp. ‚Samoa‘ [O.K.1830][B.T.S.2020]
Vini sp. ”Uta Vava’u’ [B.T.S.2020]
Vini stepheni
Vini ultramarina
Vini vidivici

Rallidae

Amaurornis cinerea

Capellirallus karamu

Fulica alai
Fulica atra ssp. australis
Fulica chathamensis
Fulica prisca

Gallinula chloropus ssp. sandvicensis
Gallinula hodgenorum
Gallinula pacifica
Gallinula sp. ‘Viti Levu’

Gallirallus astolfoi [R.B.S.2021]
Gallirallus australis ssp. australis
Gallirallus australis ssp. greyi
Gallirallus dieffenbachii
Gallirallus epulare
Gallirallus gracilitibia
Gallirallus hawkinsi

Gallirallus huiatua
Gallirallus hypoleucus
Gallirallus macquariensis
Gallirallus modestus
Gallirallus pacificus
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. assimilis
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. ecaudatus
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. goodsoni
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. mellori
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. sethsmithi
Gallirallus poecilopterus
Gallirallus ripleyi
Gallirallus roletti
Gallirallus sp. ‘Aiwa Levu’

Gallirallus sp. E ‚Ha’apai, Tonga‘
Gallirallus sp. F ‚Ha’apai, Tonga‘
Gallirallus sp. ‘Ha’afeva’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Hiva Oa’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Lifuka’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Me’eti’a’

Gallirallus sp. ‘Norfolk Island’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Rurutu’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Tongatapu’
Gallirallus steadmani
Gallirallus storrsolsoni
Gallirallus vavauensis
Gallirallus vekamatolu

Lewinia muelleri

Porphyrio hochstetteri
Porphyrio mantelli
Porphyrio mcnabei
Porphyrio melanotus ssp. melanotus
Porphyrio melanotus ssp. samoensis
Porphyrio paepae
Porphyrio sp. ‘Mangaia’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Norfolk Island’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Ra’iatea’

Rallidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Vitirallus watlingi

Zapornia atra
Zapornia keplerorum
Zapornia menehune
Zapornia nigra
Zapornia palmeri
Zapornia pusilla ssp. affinis
Zapornia ralphorum
Zapornia rua
Zapornia sandwichensis ssp. millsi
Zapornia sandwichensis ssp. sandichensis
Zapornia severnsi
Zapornia sp. ‘Aiwa Levu’
Zapornia sp. ‘Hawai’i 1’
Zapornia sp. ‘Hawai’i 2’
Zapornia sp. ‘Kaua’i 1’
Zapornia sp. ‘Kaua’i 2’
Zapornia sp. ‘Mangaia’
Zapornia sp. ‘Maui’
Zapornia sp. ‘Nuku Hiva’
Zapornia sp. ‘Rapa Nui’
Zapornia sp. ‘Ua Huka 1’
Zapornia sp. ‘Ua Huka 2’
Zapornia tabuensis
Zapornia ziegleri

Rhipiduridae

Rhipidura fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa
Rhipidura fuliginosa ssp. penita
Rhipidura fuliginosa ssp. placabilis
Rhipidura layardi ssp. erythronota
Rhipidura layardi ssp. layardi
Rhipidura nebulosa ssp. altera
Rhipidura nebulosa ssp. nebulosi
Rhipidura personata
Rhipidura rufilateralis

Scolopacidae

Coenocorypha aucklandica ssp. aucklandica
Coenocorypha aucklandica ssp. meinertzhagenae
Coenocorypha aucklandica ssp. perseverance
Coenocorypha barrierensis
Coenocorypha chathamensis
Coenocorypha heugeli
Coenocorypha iredalei
Coenocorypha miratropica
Coenocorypha pusilla
Coenocorypha sp. ‘Norfolk Island’

Prosobonia cancellata [J.J.F.J.J. 2020]
Prosobonia leucoptera
Prosobonia parvirostris
Prosobonia sauli [V.L.D.P.2020]
Prosobonia sp. ‘Mangaia’
Prosobonia sp. ‘Ua Huka’

Spheniscidae

Aptenodytes patagonicus ssp. halli

Eudyptes chrysocome ssp. filholi
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
Eudyptes robustus
Eudyptes schlegeli
Eudyptes sclateri
Eudyptes sp. ‘Cook Strait’
Eudyptes warhami

Eudyptula minor ssp. albosignata
Eudyptula minor ssp. chathamensis
Eudyptula minor ssp. iredalei
Eudyptula minor ssp. minor
Eudyptula minor ssp. variabilis
Eudyptula novaehollandiae

Megadyptes antipodes ssp. antipodes
Megadyptes antipodes ssp. richdalei

Megadyptes waitaha ssp. ‘North Island’
Megadyptes waitaha ssp. ‘South Island’

Pygoscelis taeniata [J.T.2020]

Sternidae

Anous albivitta ssp. albivitta
Anous albivitta ssp. skottsbergii
Anous cerulea ssp. ?
Anous cerulea ssp. cerulea
Anous cerulea ssp. murphyi
Anous cerulea ssp. nebouxi
Anous cerulea ssp. saxatilis
Anous cerulea ssp. teretirostris
Anous minutus ssp. marcusi
Anous minutus ssp. melanogenys
Anous minutus ssp. minutus
Anous stolidus ssp. pileatus
Anous stolidus ssp. ridgwayi

Chlidonias albostriatus
Chlidonias leucopterus

Gygis candida ssp. candida [H.D.P.2020]
Gygis candida ssp. leucopes [H.D.P.2020]
Gygis microrhyncha [H.D.P.2020]

Hydroprogne caspia

Sterna anaethetus
Sterna fuscata ssp. crissalis
Sterna fuscata ssp. kermadeci
Sterna fuscata ssp. oahuensis
Sterna fuscata ssp. serrata
Sterna lunata
Sterna paradisaea
Sterna striata
Sterna sumatrana
Sterna vittata ssp. bethunei

Sternula albifrons ssp. sinensis
Sternula nereis ssp. davisae

Thalasseus bergii ssp. cristata

Strigidae

Asio flammeus ssp. sandwichensis

Grallistrix auceps
Grallistrix erdmani
Grallistrix geleches
Grallistrix orion

Ninox albifacies ssp. albifacies
Ninox albifacies ssp. rufifacies
Ninox novaeseelandiae ssp. novaeseelandiae
Ninox novaeseelandiae ssp. undulata

Sturnidae

Aplonis atrifusca
Aplonis brevirostris
Aplonis brunnescens
Aplonis cinerascens
Aplonis diluvialis
Aplonis fortunae
Aplonis fusca
Aplonis manuae
Aplonis mavornata
Aplonis nesiotes
Aplonis rotumae
Aplonis tabuensis
Aplonis tenebrosa
Aplonis tutuilae
Aplonis ulietensis
Aplonis vitiensis

Sulidae

Morus capensis
Morus serrator

Papasula costelloi

Sula dactylatra ssp. personata
Sula dactylatra ssp. tasmani
Sula granti
Sula leucogaster ssp. brewsteri
Sula leucogaster ssp. plotus
Sula sula ssp. rubripes

Sylviornithidae

Megavitiornis altirostris

Thresciornithidae

Apteribis brevis
Apteribis glenos
Apteribis sp. ‘Lanai’
Apteribis sp. ‘Maui’

Platalea regia

Plegadis falcinellus [M.T.2015]

Turdidae

Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. lanaiensis
Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. ‘Maui’
Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. rutha
Myadestes myadestinus
Myadestes obscurus
Myadestes palmeri
Myadestes woahensis

Turdus hades
Turdus poliocephalus
Turdus ruficeps
Turdus samoensis
Turdus sp. ”Eua’
Turdus sp. ‘Lifuka’
Turdus sp. ‘Tongatapu’
Turdus tempesti
Turdus vitiensis ssp. layardi
Turdus vitiensis ssp. vitiensis

Tytonidae

Tyto delicatula
Tyto longimembris

Zosteropidae

Zosteropidae gen. & sp. ”Eua’
Zosteropidae gen. & sp. ‘Tongatapu’

Zosterops albogularis
Zosterops explorator
Zosterops lateralis ssp. flaviceps
Zosterops lateralis ssp. lateralis
Zosterops samoensis
Zosterops tenuirostris

***

11 der Familien sind Endzeiten der Region.

*********************

Quellen:

[O.K.1830] Otto von Kotzebue: Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1823, 24, 25 und 26. Weimar: W. Hoffman 1830
[F.D.B.1840] F. D. Bennett: Narrative of a Whaling Voyage round the Globe, from the year 1833 to 1836. London: Richard Bentley 1840
[C.N.1943] Charles Nordhoff: Notes on the birds of Tahiti. The Avicultural Magazine ser. 5. 8(5): 119-120. 1943
[S.L.O. 1991] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[H.F.J. 2005] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidino: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005
[M.T. 2015] M. Thompson: Discovery of first breeding attempt of glossy ibis in New Zealand. Birds New Zealand 5: 10-11. 2015
[A.C. 2015] Alice Cibois; Jean-Claude Thibault; Mary LeCroy; Vincent Bretagnolle: Molecular analysis of a storm petrel specimen from the Marquesas Islands, with comments on specimens of Fregetta lineata and F. guttata. Bulletin of the British Ornitologists‘ Club 135(3):240-246. 2015
[W.A.C.2016] Willie A. Cook; Don Cooper; Philippa & John Foes-Lamb; Joan Gdanitz; Geoff Davis; Charmaine & Peter Field; David S. Melville: First and second breeding record of Australian wood duck (Chenonetta jubata) in New Zealand. Notornis 63: 105-108. 2016
[M.B.2016] M. Bruce; N. Bahr; N. David: Pampusanna vs. Pampusana: a nomenclatural conundrum resolved, along with associated errors and oversights. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club. 136: 86–100. 2016
[S.H.2019] Stuart Hawkins; Trevor H. Worthy: Lapita colonisation and avian extinctions in Oceania. In: Debating Lapita: Distribution, Chronology, Society and Subsistence, Publisher: ANU E-Press, pp. 439-467. 2019
[V.L.D.P.2020] Vanesa L. De Pietri; Trevor H. Worthy; R. Paul Scofield; Theresa L. Cole; Jamie R. Wood; Kieren J. Mitchell; Alice Cibois; Justin J. F. J. Jansen; Alan J. Cooper; Shaohong Feng; Wanjun Chen; Alan J. D. Tennyson; Graham M. Wragg: A new extinct species of Polynesian sandpiper (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae: Prosobonia) from Henderson Island, Pitcairn Island Group, and the phylogenetic relationships of Prosobonia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-26. 2020
[D.W.S.2020] David W. Steadman; Oona M. Takano: A new genus and species of pigeon (Aves, Columbidae) from the Kingdom of Tonga, with an evaluation of hindlimb osteology of columbids from Oceania. Zootaxa 4810: 401-420. 2020
[J.J.F.J.J.2020] Justin J. F. J. Jansen; Alice Cibois: Clarifying the morphology of the enigmatic Kiritimati Sandpiper Prosobonia cancellata (J. F. Gmelin, 1785), based on a review of the contemporary data. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 140(2): 142-146. 2020
[J.T.2020] Joshua Tyler; Matthew T. Bonfitto; Gemma V. Clucas; Sushma Reddy; Jane L. Younger: Morphometric and genetic evidence for four species of gentoo penguin. Ecology and Evolution 1-11. 2020
[P.R.2020] Philippe Raust: On the possible vernacular name and origin of the extinct Spotted Green Pigeon Caloenas maculata. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 140(1): 3-6. 2020
[H.D.P.2020] H. Douglas Pratt: Species limits and English names in the genus Gygis (Laridae). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 140(2): 195-208. 2020
[B.T.S.2020] B. T. Smith; W. M. I. Mauck; B. W. Benz; M. J. Andersen: Uneven missing data skew phylogenomic relationships within the lories and lorikeets. Genome Biology and Evolution 12(7): 1131–1147. 2020
[R.B.S.2021] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Atholl Anderson; Alan J. D. Tennyson: An extinct new rail (Gallirallus, Aves: Rallidae) species from Rapa Island, French Polynesia. Taxonomy 1: 448-457. 2021
[L.D.S.2021] Lara D. Shepherd; Alan J. D. Tennyson; Hugh A. Robertson; Rogan M. Colburne; Kristina M. Ramstad: Hybridisation in kiwi (Apteryx, Apterygidae) requires taxonomic revision for the Great Spotted Kiwi. Avian Research 12, 24. 2021

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bearbeitet: 09.01.2022

Eoconfuciusornis zhengi Zhang, Zhou & Benton

Diese Art wurde im Jahr 2008 beschrieben; sie stammt aus Schichten, die sich auf ein Alter von 131 Millionen Jahren datieren lassen, d.h. aus der Unterkreide. [1]

Das Typusexemplar weist im Bereich des Unterleibs kleine, runde Gebilde auf, die ursprünglich für Eier gehalten wurden, die aber mittlerweile als Samen eines Steineibengewächses (Podocarpaceae) identifiziert wurden, die der fossilen Form Carpolithus multiseminalis Sun et Zheng bzw. Strobilites taxusoides Sun & Zheng (siehe Darstellung) aus derselben Fundschicht ähneln, jedoch größer waren. [4]

Des Weiteren sind bei dieser Art Farbzellen erhalten, die es möglich machen, die Farben des Vogels zu Lebzeiten zu rekonstruieren: das Gefieder war hauptsächlich dunkelgrau mit irisierenden Federn im Kopf-Nacken-Bereich, die Kehle war offenbar rotbraun gefärbt, die Armschwingen mögen bräunlich gewesen sein, die Handschwingen sicher dunkler, eher schwärzlich. [3][5]

***

Der Vogel gehört zur Ordnung der Confuciusornithiformes, einer Gruppe von avialen Dinosauriern, die sehr gute Flieger gewesen sein dürften und bereits einen keratinösen Schnabel besaßen, die aber nur äußerst entfernt mit den heutigen Vögeln verwandt sind und auch nicht deren Vorfahren darstellen. 

Zu Lebzeiten muss diese Art eine Länge von über 30 cm erreicht haben (inclusive der beiden verlängerten Schwanzfedern). [2]

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*********************

Quellen:

[1] FuCheng Zhang; ZhongHe Zhou; Michael J. Benton: A primitive confuciusornithid bird from China and its implications for early avian flight. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences 51: 625–639. 2008
[2] Matthew P. Martyniuk: A Field Guide to Mesozoic Birds and Other Winged Dinosaurs. Pan Aves 2012
[3] Yanhong Pan; Wenxia Zheng; Alison E. Moyer; Jingmai K. O’Connor; Min Wang; Xiaoting Zheng; Xiaoli Wang; Elena R. Schroeter; Zhonghe Zhou; Mary H. Schweitzer: Molecular evidence of keratin and melanosomes in feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis. Proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(49) 900-907. 2016
[4] Gerald Mayr; Thomas G. Kaye; Michael Pittman; Evan T. Saitta; Christian Pott: Reanalysis of putative ovarian follicles suggests that Early Cretaceous birds were feeding not breeding. Scientific Reports 10(19035): 1-10. 2020
[5] Pan Yanhong; Li Zhiheng; Wang Min; Zhao Tao; Xiaoli Wang; Xiaoting Zheng: Unambiguous evidence of brilliant iridescent feather color from hollow melanosomes in an Early Cretaceous bird. National Science Review. in press: nwab227. doi:10.1093/nsr/nwab227. 2021

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bearbeitet: 02.01.2022

Neu beschrieben – Inti-Tangare

Inti-Tangare (Heliothraupis oneilli Lane et al.)

Dieser Vogel wurde erstmals 1993 entdeckt, wurde aber erst in den 2000er Jahren als etwas Neues erkannt und mit dem Spitznamen „Kill Bill-Tangare“ bedacht; aufgrund ihrer Färbung, die an den, unter Filmfans berühmten, Anzug der Hauptdarstellerin im gleichnamigen Film erinnert.

Die Art wurde nun endlich offiziell als neue Gattung und Art beschrieben und wird wegen ihrer leuchtend gelben Färbung als Inti-Tangare bezeichnet, nach dem  Quechua-Wort „Inti“ für Sonne. [1]

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Quelle:

[1] Daniel F. Lane; Miguel Angel Aponte Justiniano; Ryan S. Terrill; Frank E. Rheindt; Luke B. Klicka; Gary H. Rosenberg; Jonathan Schmitt; Kevin J. Burns: A new genus and species of tanager (Passeriformes, Thraupidae) from the lower Yungas of western Bolivia and southern Peru. Ornithology 138: 1-17. 2021

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bearbeitet: 02.01.2022

Kaririavis mater de Souza Carvalho et al.

… just having been described from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation in Brazil.:

reconstruction in life-size, quite a small bird

This was a member of the Euornithes, which include all living birds, yet it does not belong to any of the living bird groups of course; it is the oldest member of that group known from South America (older ones were found in China).

The bird is known only from a single right foot that lacks some of its bones; the fossil also contains some feathers which indeed may belong to the bird. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Ismar de Souza Carvalho; Federico L. Agnolin; Sebastián Rozadilla; Fernando E. Novas; José A. Ferreira Gomes Andrade; José Xavier-Neto: A new ornithuromorph bird from the Lower Cretaceous of South America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology doi: 10.1080/02724634.2021.1988623. 2021

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edited: 14.11.2021

What is/was Strix parvissima Ellman?

Little Owl (Ruruwekau), Strix parvissima. A very scarce bird, not larger than a starling. The head is very large. I have never obtained a specimen, but have seen it among the forests. It is an exceedingly shy bird.” [1] 

***

In this division there is a most remarkable little owl, the smallest in the world. It is known to the natives as the ruru wekau; it has an unusually large head, flies by day, is exceedingly shy, and is about half the size of the common ruru. It inhabits dense forests.” [2]

***

No. 6. – Strix parvissima, Ellman. (Zool., 1861)
Little Owl

Amongst the desiderata of our collections the Little Owl has for some time held a place; many doubt its existence, few have seen it, still fewer have preserved any note or observation concerning it. From the information that has been gleaned about this rare bird, it would appear that its habitat must be the bushes about the Rangitata River 
[Canterbury Region, South Island].
One correspondent saw it on the bank of a creek at no great distance from Mount Peel Forest, it was between the roots of a large tree; observation was drawn to it by the proceedings of several tuis, who were persecuting it to the best of their ability; it was whilst its attention was engaged by these noisy assailants that the bird was secured. It was about the size of a kingfisher, and its captor felt quite certain of its being an adult specimen; it was carried home to be shown as a curiosity, and was afterwards liberated. Unlike the more-pork, when captured it was exceedingly gentle.
Another specimen was procured by a gentleman in one of the bushes far above the Rangitata Gorge; on being observed on a branch of a tree, it was knocked down and caught during its fall; there was fur on its beak, as though it had not long before devoured a mouse; this bird was also set at liberty.
Two other instances of its occurrence have been communicated, but without further information. It may be mentioned that one of these was again on the Rangitata.
At Shepherd Bush Station, on the Rangitata, opposite Peel Forest, a specimen was observed in the house, greatly resembling A. Novae Zelandiae 
[ruru (Ninox novaeseelandiae)], except in size, which was about that of a kingfisher; it was most gentle in its habits, remaining quiet during the daytime and sallied forth in the evening, regaining its perch by entering through a broken window. This pretty little visitor thus frequented the house for about a fortnight; it should be added that the house stands close to a small bush composed chiefly of Leptospermum, Griselinia, etc., of which there are many aged specimens.
From these notices it may be safely inferred that the Little Owl is arboreal in its habits, and possibly not so strictly nocturnal as its better known congeners; whether it is to be considered identical with either of the species referred to by Dr. Finsch is, of course, at present unknown; it is certain it is not a tufted species, or such a remarkable form would have been noticed.
” [3]

***

What can we make of this little owl that apparently once existed in New Zealand?

Are these accounts referring to an actual owl or rather to some other bird, maybe even to a last surviving population of the New Zealand Owlet-Nightjar (Aegotheles novaezealandiae (Scarlett))?

This nightjar species is known only from subfossil remains that date to 1200 AD and which usually are not found in association with Maori middens, it was also not necessarily a small bird and may have been quite the same size as the ruru and only slightly smaller than the larger whēkau (Ninox albifacies); furthermore it is thought to have been flightless or at least nearly so. 

There is, however, a slight chance that these eyewitness accounts indeed refer to a last surviving population of this now extinct creature, we will probably never know for sure.

*********************

References:

[1] J. B. Ellman: Brief Notes on the Birds of New Zealand. The Zoologist 19: 7464-7473. 1861
[2] J. B. Ellman: Correspondence. The Press 3(136): 2. 1863
[3] T. H. Potts: On the birds of New Zealand (Part II.) Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 3: 59-109. 1870

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New Zealand Owlet-Nightjar (Aegotheles novaezealandiae)

Depiction: Paul Martinson

under creative commons license (4.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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edited: 05.11.2021

The Manumea

There is probably no other bird on this planet that comes more closely to what could be called a cryptid than the Manumea, the Tooth-billed Pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris (Jardine)) of Samoa.

The species is known to inhabit, or at least to have inhabited, the rainforests of the islands of Nu’ulua, Savai’i and ‘Upolu, Western Samoa; in prehistorical times it was even more widespread. Nearly nothing is known about this species: the breeding behavior is still unknown, the same more or less applies to basically all of the bird’s habits.

As far as I know there are only about five or so photos of living individuals of the species, most of them, if not all, show the same bird that was kept in captivity for some time.

The latest sightings were of a juvenile bird in 2013, which also was photographed; than a bird was seen and heard calling in 2020, however, no photo had been taken this time. [1]

***

The Manumea is currently not kept in captivity and the wild population is estimated to be less than 100 – to about 300 birds, that’s not much and the species is in immediate danger of extinction.

Wouldn’t it be phantastic if even only a fraction of the amounts of money that are spend to prove the existence of such phantasy creatures like Bigfoot, Chupacabra or Mokele Mbembe would be used for something useful, for the search for the Manumea, for the rescue of this enigmatic yet indeed existing bird?!

*********************

References:

[1] Sapeer Mayron: Near-extinct manumea spotted in Savai’i. Samoa Observer 25/08/2020

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Photo: Augustin Kramer

(public domain)

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edited: 03.11.2021

Are there Maori traditions about the extinct Moa(s)? part: 2

The Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa (New Zealand), have a very rich oral tradition that actually dates back to the time when their ancestors first arrived at the shores of the islands!

These traditions, however, have greatly been influenced by Europeans settlers, especially by missionaries, who tried to destroy the Maori by banning everything Maori: traditional clothing, traditional musical instruments, songs, religious beliefs, even the Maori language itself, everything was banned and violations were punished severely. 

No one can say how much knowledge was destroyed during these times.

“…
Kotahi tonue tama 
Te tiaki whenua, 
Ko te kuranui
Te manu a Rua-kapanga, 
Itahuna e to tupuna, e Tamatea 
Ki te ahi tawhito, 
Ki te ahi tupua, 
Ki te ahi na Mahuika. 
Na Maui i whakaputa ki te ao 
Ka mate i whare huki o Repo-roa, 
Ka rere te momo, e tama e!

This is the end part of a large Maori poem that can be dated back to the 14th century, around the time when the first Maori settlers arrived at the shores of Aotearoa (New Zealand).

The poem mentions the kuranui, the bird of Rua-kapanga, which is said to have been the first person to have spotted the bird; te kuranui might be translated as ‘the large red one’, ‘the large precious one’ or maybe as ‘the most precious one’.

Furthermore it also informs us about the fate of these kuranui(s): “… destroyed by your ancestor, Tamatea, with underground and supernatural fire, the fire of Mahuika (a fire goddess), brought to this world by Maui; they were driven into the swamps and perished …” [1]

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References:

[1] Otto Krösche: Die Moa-Strausse, Neuseelands ausgestorbene Riesenvögel: Die neue Brehm-Bücherei 322. A. Ziemsen Verlag 1963

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edited: 02.11.2021

Pā-Tangaroa – an extinct starling from the island of Mangaia?

Nowadays there is only one single species of starling in central Polynesia, the Rarotonga starling (Aplonis cinereacsens Hartlaub & Finsch), which occurs exclusively on the island of Rarotonga, the largest of the Cook Islands; another form, the plain star (Aplonis mavornata Buller), itself a mystery for over a century, came from another of the Cook Islands, namely Ma’uke.  

So, it’s pretty certain that other forms were once found on other islands in this archipelago, right?  

I just found a clue in this direction when I was writing down the names from a list of birds compiled in the early 20th century by someone named F. W. Christian; this list is part of a kind of dictionary of the Mangaian dialect, the dialect spoken on the island of Mangaia, the southernmost and second largest of the Cook Islands.

Here a list of the bird names.:

Pā-Tangaroa. – A speckled bird; somewhat larger than the Kere-a-rako. Frequents coconut palm blossoms. 
Tangaa-‚eo. – The native Wood-pecker; blue above, yellow and white below. 
Kere-a-rako. – A small yellow and green song-bird much resembling a canary. 
Titi. – A bird living in the rocks and crags. Much relished for food. Cf. Maori Titi, the Mutton-bird. Sanskrit and Hindustani, Titti: Tittiri, the Partridge. 
Mokora’a. – The Wild Duck, or rather, a small species of teal, found in abundance round Lake Tiriara. 
Kauā. – A sea-bird. 
Rakoa. – A sea-bird. 
Torea. – A sea-bird. 
Kotuku. – The Blue Heron. 
Kakaia. – A beautiful small white tern or sea-gull. 
Kotaa. – The Frigate or Boatswain Bird. Cf. Samoa, A ta fu,; id. 
Fijian, Kandavu; id. Uleai (W. Carolines) Kataf; id. Sonserol (S. W. Caralises) Gatyava; id. Cf. Sanskrit Gandharva, a celestial messenger: angel. 
Tavake. – The Tropic Bird (Phaethon). Called in the Marquesas Tavae-ma-te-ve’o, from its two long red tail-feathers. Used in Polynesian head-ornaments. Cf. Ponape Chaok: Chik; id. Cf. Sanskrit Stabaka, Stavaka a peacock’s feather: tuft: plume. 
Kara’ura’u. – A sea-bird. 
Kururi: Kuriri. – The Sand-Piper.
Karavi’a. – The Long-tailed Cuckoo. 
Kura-mō. – A small Parrakeet (on Atiu).
“ [1]

The respective scientific names of the birds.:

Pā-Tangaroa. – ?
Tangaa-‚eo. – Todiramphus ruficollaris
Kere-a-rako. – Acrocephalus k. kerearako
Titi. – Pterodroma nigripennis
Mokora’a. – Anas superciliosa
Kauā. – Numenius tahitiensis
Rakoa. – Puffinus lherminieri
Torea. – Pluvialis fulva
Kotuku. – Egretta sacra
Kakaia. – Gygis alba
Kotaa. – Fregata spp.
Tavake. – Phaethon rubricauda
Kara’ura’u. – Procelsterna cerulea
KururiKuriri. – Tringa incana
Karavi’a. – Eudynamis taitensis
Kura-mō. – Vini kuhlii

***

All of these names can be assigned to actually existing bird species, with one exception – the first name.

So which species is hiding behind the name Pā-Tangaroa?

This is actually a rather unusual name for a Polynesian bird, and the reference to Tangaroa, one of the most important Polynesian gods, is very interesting. Perhaps a bird with such a name was also considered God-like or sacred, or at least as being tapu.

The description of this bird: speckled and slightly larger than the Kerearako (i.e. larger than 16 cm), often found on coconut flowers, fits a star of the genus Aplonis quite well, in fact it suits this genus more than any other genus in question.

So there was almost certainly once a star of the genus Aplonis that lived on the island of Mangaia, and its subfossil bones may sooner or later be discovered; the question is, did the species survive long enough that locals could at least remember that it was called Pā-Tangaroa? Given that research into the fauna and flora of the Cook Islands didn’t begin until the early 20th century … it is entirely possible! 

***

I should also mention that this listing, which dates back to 1920, already mentions the Cook Island reed warbler (Acrocephalus kerearako Holyoak), which was not officially discovered until 1973 (and described a year later). [2] 

*********************

References:

[1] F. W. Christian: List of Mangaia birds. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 29(114): 87. 1920
[2] D. T. Holyoak: Undescribed land birds from the Cook Islands, Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 94(4): 145-150. 1974

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Pā-Tangaroa (Aplonis sp.)

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edited: 01.11.2021

Are there Maori traditions about the extinct Moa(s)?

This is a very interesting question that was asked by many scientists – what does Maori lore tell us about the now extinct megafauna of New Zealand? The results of all previous investigations are rather sobering, all so-called traditional accounts seem to date to the time following the arrival of the Europeans in New Zealand.

I want to mention only one of them here.

The first account dates from the middle of the 19th century.:

The natives speak of another member of this family, which they name the kiwi papa whenua, a still larger species, which they describe as having been full seven feet high; it likewise had a very long bill, with which it made large holes in the ground, in search after worms. This bird is now extinct, but there are persons living who have seen it. Rauparaha told me he had eaten it in his youth, which might be about seventy years ago [ca. 1785], and when that Chief died, his corpse was said to have been ornamented with some of its feathers.” [1] 

***

This second account refers to the first one and was made just ten years later.:

Kiwi Papa Whenua. Seven feet [ca. 2 m] high. One of the last birds to disappear. There are still men who have hunted it.” [2]

***

The Kiwi papa whenua accounts may indeed refer to one of the smaller or middle-sized moa species, one that was about 2 m tall and that may have survived longer than most of the other moa species, but probably not into the early- or middle 18th century; it might thus be referring to the so-called Upland Moa (Megalapteryx didinus (Owen)), a species that officially died out around 1500 AD.. However, when reading the first account, it is very clear that this description has been mixed with that of a typical kiwi, thus it is quite clear that these accounts are no eyewitness reports.

The term Kiwi papa whenua might be translated as ‘Ground kiwi’ or maybe ‘Kiwi of the land’ which is not very meaningful. It is furthermore rather unlikely that the Maori would have connected the diurnal, rather large, long-necked moa species with the completely distinct kiwi(s), thus it is very unlikely that the term ‘kiwi’ would have been used for any of these species.

Nevertheless, such old accounts remain very interesting, and I will go on posting more of them in the future.   

*********************

References:

[1] Richard Taylor: Te Ika a Maui: or, New Zealand and its inhabitants, illustrating the origin, manners, customs, mythology, religion, rites, songs, proverbs, fables, and language of the natives: together with the geology, natural history, productions, and climate of the country; its state as regards Christianity; sketches of the principal chiefs, and their present position; with a map and numerous illustrations. London: Wertheim and Macintosh, 24, Paternoster-Row. 1855
[2] J. B. Ellman: Brief Notes on the Birds of New Zealand. The Zoologist 19: 7464-7473. 1861

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edited: 01.11.2021

Visit at the ‚Tiere im Turm‘ exhibition on the Friedenstein castle in Gotha

This exhibition is a small part of what once was the ‚Naturkundemuseum Gotha‘, it is now placed in a single floor of one tower the Friedenstein castle and consists of a hand full of stuffed animals including some birds.

One thing that is immediately noticeable is the darkness in all the rooms, almost as if this exhibition was planned by – or for vampires, that’s stupid!

In one of the first showcases are some animals that are alternately illuminated one after the other, among them is this plastic model of a Chinstrap Penguin that seems to drift around in the nothingness of space and time ….:

Space Penguin Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica)

Another room shows some animals from Antarctica, all with the German names only, scientific names are not used, and the whole exhibition seems to be made especially for children, which is actually a thing that many museums think they need to do for what reasons ever ….

This is probably the only room that is not pitch black, by the way.:

some Antarctic (or rather subantarctic) birds in two showcases
Snow Petrel (Pagodroma nivea)
Snowy Sheathbill (Chionis albus), one of my favorite birds … somewhat

Another room is dedicated to the biodiversity of the tropics, and here we find, well, maybe about twenty birds (this time with their scientific names attached), some five mammals, a hand full of insects without any names and … animal sounds from speakers, that are extremely annoying because they are way too loud!

… and this room again is as dark as – I don’t know – a rainforest at night maybe.:

an example for the lighting concept of the exhibition
Short-tailed Emerald (Chlorostilbon portmani)
Brassy-breasted Tanager (Tangara desmaresti)

The last room of the exhibition is dedicated to European native nocturnal animals, so there’s basically no light at all … which is a lot of fun if you want to take some photographs of something ….:

Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus)
Little Owl (Athene noctua)

In the museum shop I found this cheap book about the bird specimens that still are hidden in the depots of the former ‚Naturkundemuseum‘; it must be nearly a thousand specimens or more which once were all shown to the public, as I can well remember from my childhood days.:

The current exhibition exists since 2010 and nothing was changed or added despite plans to relocate all of the specimens from the former museum into the castle where they are supposed to get more space, that’s a great shame because at least the bird collection is indeed one of the largest in Europe and contains some extremely valuable specimens!

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edited: 31.10.2021

Birds of Polynesia – lesser-known depictions: William Bligh

These four watercolor paintings date from 1792 and were made by the infamous Captain William Bligh himself, the captain of the HMS Providence, who had come to Tahiti on a mission to transport breadfruit trees and other botanical material from the Pacific to the West Indies.

These pictures were made on the island of Tahiti; three of the depicted species are now no longer found on that island and the Black-fronted Parakeet is even extinct completely.

*********************

The Erropai or large Pidgeon of Otaheite / Polynesian Imperial Pigeon (Ducula aurora)
Oo-oopah or Otaheite Doves / Grey-green Fruit Dove (Ptilinopus purpuratus)
The green Paraques of Otaheite, called from the noise they make Ah Ah or Ahah / Black-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus zealandicus)
The small blue Paroquet of Otaheite called Aiwinnee / Blue Lorikeet (Vini peruvianus)

Depictions from: ‘Watercolours of William Bligh, Commander in Her Majesty’s Navy (1791-93)’

(public domain)

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edited: 20.10.2021

Birds of Polynesia – lesser-known depictions: John Webber

This artwork was made by John Webber (1751 – 1793), an English artist of Swiss origin who accompanied Captain James Cook on his third voyage from 1776 to 1780; the painting was apparently made in Tahiti based on a living bird.

*********************

Parroquet of Tahaite / Blue Lorikeet (Vini peruviana)

Depiction by John Webber; 1777

The Trustees of the British Museum

(under creative commons license (4.0)
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

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edited: 19.10.2021

Birds of Polynesia – lesser-known depictions: Sarah Stone

This depiction with its vivid blue colors was made in about 1785 by Sarah Stone (ca. 1760 – 1844), an almost unknown artist who apparently lived in London and produced many watercolor depictions of birds using stuffed specimens.

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Parokets of Oteheate / Blue Lorikeet (Vini peruviana)

Depiction from: ‘George Raper: Birds of Australia and South Seas. Original drawings 1788-90. from E. Cane’

Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand
https://natlib.govt.nz

(You can copy this item for personal use, share it, and post it on a blog or website. It cannot be used commercially without permission, please ask us for advice. If reproducing this item, please maintain the integrity of the image)

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edited: 19.10.2021

Vögel Polynesiens – weniger bekannte Darstellungen: Roland Green

Die beiden folgenden Darstellungen stammen von Roland Green (1890-1972), einem englischen Maler, der sich offenbar auf Säuger- und vor allem Vogelbilder spezialisiert hatte und dessen Abbildungen sehr lebensecht wirken.

Beide Bilder wurden wohl direkt für die dazugehörigen Artikel im ‚Avicultural Magazine‘ angefertigt und stammen demzufolge aus den 1930ern.

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Saphirlori (Vini peruviana)

Darstellung aus: ‚J. Delacour: The Tahiti Blue Lory (Coriphilus peruvianus). The Avicultural Magazine Ser. 5, Vol. 1(3): 65-66. 1936‘

(public domain)
Rubinlori (Vini kuhlii)

Darstellung aus: ‚J. Delacour: The Ruby Lori (Vini kuhli). The Avicultural Magazine Ser.5, Vol. 1(5): 127-128. 1936‘

(public domain)

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bearbeitet: 08.10.2021

Fossil record of the Sphenisciformes

Spheniscidae

Anthropodyptes gilli Simpson 

Anthropornis grandis Wiman
Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Wiman

Aprosdokitos mikrotero Acosta-Hospitaleche et al.

Aptenodytes ridgeni Simpson
Apterodytes ictus Ameghino

Archaeospheniscus lopdelli Marples
Archaeospheniscus lowei Marples
Archaeospheniscus wimani Marples

Arthrodytes andrewsi Ameghino

Crossvallia unienwillia Tambussi et al.
Crossvallia (?) waiparensis Mayr, De Pietri, Love, Mannering & Scofield

Dege hendeyi Simpson

Delphinornis arctowskii Myrcha et al.
Delphinornis larseni Wiman

Duntroonornis parvus Marples

Eudyptes atatu Thomas, Tennyson, Scofield, Heath, Pett & Ksepka [1]

Icadyptes salasi Clarke et al.

Inguza predemersus Simpson

Kaiika maxwelli Fordyce & Thomas

Kairuku grebneffi Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones
Kairuku waitaki Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones
Kairuku waewaeroa Giovanardi, Ksepka & Thomas [2]

Korora oliveri Marples

Kumimanu biceae Mayr et al.

Kupoupou stilwelli Blokland, Reid, Worthy, Tennyson, Clarke & Scofield

Madrynornis mirandus Acosta-Hospitaleche et al.

Marambiornis exilis Myrcha et al.

Marambiornopsis sobrali Jadwiszczak et al. [3]

Marplesornis novaezealandiae Marples

Mesetaornis polaris Myrcha et al.

Muriwaimanu tuatahi Slack et al.

Nucleornis insolitus Simpson

Orthopteryx gigas Wiman

Pachydyptes ponderosus Oliver
Pachydyptes simpsoni Jenkins

Palaeeudyptes antarcticus Huxley
Palaeeudyptes gunnari Wiman
Palaeeudyptes klekowskii Myrcha et al.
Palaeeudyptes marplesi Brodkorb

Paraptenodytes antarcticus Moreno & Mercerat
Paraptenodytes brodkorbi Simpson
Paraptenodytes robustus Ameghino

Perudyptes devriesi Clarke et al.

Platydyptes amiesi Marples
Platydyptes marplesi Simpson
Platydyptes novaezealandiae Oliver

Pseudaptenodytes macraei Simpson
Pseudaptenodytes minor Simpson

Pygoscelis calderensis Acosta-Hospitaleche, Chávez & Fritis
Pygoscelis grandis Walsh & Suarez
Pygoscelis tyreei Simpson

Sequiwaimanu rosieae Mayr et al.

Spheniscidae gen. & sp. ‘Burnside Formation, New Zealand’

Spheniscus chilensis Emslie & Correa 
Spheniscus megaramphus Stucchi et al.
Spheniscus muizoni Gohlich
Spheniscus urbinai Stucchi

Tonniornis mesetaensis Tambussi et al.
Tonniornis minimum Tambussi et al.

Waimanu manneringi Slack, Jones, Ando, Harrison, Fordyce, Arnason & Penny

Wimanornis seymourensis Simpson

*********************

References:

[1] Daniel B. Thomas; Alan J. D. Tennyson; R. Paul Scofield; Tracy A. Heath; Walker Pett; Daniel T. Ksepka: Ancient crested penguin constrains timing of recruitment into seabird hotspot. Proceedings of the Royal Soiety B. 287(1932), 2020, s. 20201497, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2020.1497
[2] Simone Giovanardi; Daniel T. Ksepka; Daniel B. Thomas: A giant Oligocene fossil penguin from the North Island of New Zealand. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology: e1953047. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.1953047. 2021
[3] P. Jadwiszczak; M. Reguero; T. Mörs: A new small-sized penguin from the late Eocene of Seymour Island with additional material of Mesetaornis polaris. GFF advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/11035897.2021.1900385. 2021

*********************

edited: 22.09.2021

Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World

James C. Greenway, Jr.: Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. Dover Publications, Inc., New York 1958

*********************

This is a highly (out)dated book, originally published in 1958; my copy, however, is a revised print from 1967.

The cover shows two of my absolute favorite bird species, the extinct Society Islands parakeets.

As the title implies, the book not only covers extinct birds (species and subspecies) but also those on the brink of extinction (at the time of the publishing), some of them with black-and-white drawings, it is also a very useful source for literature citations etc.. It is very intriguing to think about how much has changed since that time ….

If you are interested in that topic and are able get your fingers on this book – do it!

*********************

edited: 21.09.2021

Bird Art: Drawing Birds using Graphite & Coloured Pencils

Alan Woollett: Bird Art: Drawing Birds using Graphite & Coloured Pencils. Search Press Ltd. 2017

*********************

The author is an artist who works with colored pencils, but not with watercolor pencils unfortunately, but that’s not really a big problem here. I could still “learn” some things that I had already figured out myself … it is just quite nice to see how others work and that others come to the same conclusions when facing the same problems as oneself. 🙂

This book can be recommended.

*********************

edited: 21.09.2021

Avian Musings – blog post from January 23, 2019

In his great blog (that I actually – and that’s no lie – look into at least once a week), Paul Cianfaglione writes about many bird-related things, including fine book reviews, very interesting insights into bird anatomy and everything else.

But his latest post is just unbeatable: he did make an extremely close inspection of a bird fossil from Messel that he owns.:

“Messel Bird Fossil offers unique feather preservation, and more” from January 23, 2019

***

I personally have never seen close-ups of a bird fossil that are so razor-sharp and detailed!

And his bird shows features not known in any living bird – at least not all of them together in one bird.:

The beak is very big and hooked like the beak of a bird of prey or a owl, and it appears to have had sensory pits, the body feathers appear somewhat hair-like, the wing coverts are fluffy, also probably somewhat like the feather edges of recent owls, and the primaries have extremely strange appendages not known in that way from any other bird, living or extinct, but somewhat reminding on the wings of a waxwing.

What kind of a bird was that?

Well, I could try to do a reconstruction, should I?

take 1: that is just a doodle, maybe I have more time tomorrow to make a complete drawing

Gosh, this is so exciting!   🙂
take 2
take 3

***

The Avian Musings blog does not longer exist, unfortunately.

*********************

edited: 03.09.2021

LKM-Pal 7.451 a+b

This is one of two passerine bird species recently found in middle Miocene deposits in Austria, this one is known from a partial skull and several other quite shredded bones while the second one is known only from a sternum.

… just a quick sketch

*********************

References:

[1] Johannes Happ; Armin Elsler; Jürgen Kriwet; Cathrin Pfaff; Zbigniew M. Bochenski: Two passeriform birds (Aves: Passeriformes) from the Middle Miocene of Austria. PalZ (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-021-00579-2

A new Messel bird with exceptionally well-preserved feathers!

During the latest digging campaign in the Messel shale, a new bird fossil was found that has unimaginably well-preserved feathers – even by Messel standards, while the bones themselves are rather crumbly.

***

This bird reaches the size of a recent Great Tit (Parus major L.), it apparently had a short and broad beak and anisodactyl feet.

The feathers are exceptionally well-preserved and distinctly colored: the feathers on the head and neck are greyish brown with reddish brown tips; the rump feathers are dark ashy brown; the primary coverts of the wing are straw yellow, the primaries are reddish brown with a purplish hue; the tail feathers (at least 10) are nearly as long as the primaries, they are straw yellow and have a distinct reddish brown and dark brown stripy pattern not unlike as in recent birds of prey.

These are of course not the original colors of that bird, yet the patterns are! [1]

***

The fossil has only just been found, it hasn’t yet been prepared and has not even a collection number, thus there is not much that can be said about it, however, all in all this form reminds me on Hassiavis laticauda Mayr, a member of the family Archaeotrogonidae from the same locality, but it is of course much smaller and has proportionally less stout arm- and leg bones.

*********************

References:

[1] Georgina Jadikovskaal: Fossil of unknown bird species resembling great tit found during dig at UNESCO site. Zenger News July 12, 2021

*********************

… just a quick sketch

*********************

edited: 09.08.2021

Komako – The Mangareva Reed Warbler

The Mangareva Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus astrolabii Holyoak & Thibault), only described in 1978, is one of the many mysterious birds whose cases were solved only quite recently.

The species was restricted to the Gambier Islands, where it was at least found on the biggest of the islands, Mangareva.

The species disappeared sometimes during the early or middle 19th century, but the natives still recalled the former presence of it and were also still using its name.:

She [the daughter of the Chief of the island of Taravai] has not seen the “Komaku” herself, but her father, the Chief, has. He gave us the name and says he saw them about thirty or forty years ago.” [1]

***

The species apparently died out sometimes around the middle 19th century; it is, however, possible that it survived into the middle of the 20th century …:

Signalons aussi qu’une fauvette fut observée sur l’îlot Tepapuri en 1971 (Thibault, 1973b). Ce dernier oiseau, blanchâtre dessus et brun dessous, devait être un erratique de la forme habitant, les atolls au nord des Gambier, A. caffer ravus.“ [1]

translation:

Note also that a warbler was observed on Tepapuri islet in 1971 (Thibault, 1973b). This last bird, whitish above and brown below [I’m quite sure that it should be exactly reversed], must have been an erratic of the form inhabiting the atolls north of the Gambier, A. caffer ravus,”

I somewhat doubt that assumption, and this account may indeed be the very last sighting of a Mangareva Reed Warbler that took place on one of the northernmost motu of the Gambier Island’s fringing reef.

*********************

References:

[1] Whitney South Sea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History: Voyage of the ‘France’ from Timoe Atoll to the Mangareva Islands; Voyage to Marutea. April 25 – May 14, 1922. Extracts from the Journal of Ernest H. Quayle; Assistant Field Naturalist. Book XXV through Book XXVIII. April 1 – June 24, 1922
[2] D. T. Holyoak; J.-C. Thibault: Contribution à l’étude des oiseaux de Polynésie orientale. Mémoires du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle 127(1): 1-209. 1984
[3] Alice Cibois; Jean-Claude Thibault; Eric Pasquet: Molecular and morphological analysis of Pacific reed warbler specimens of dubious origin, including Acrocephalus luscinius astrolabii. Bulletin on the British Ornitologists‘ Club 131(1): 32-40. 2011

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Whitney South Sea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History: Voyage of the ‘France’ from Timoe Atoll to the Mangareva Islands; Voyage to Marutea. April 25 – May 14, 1922. Extracts from the Journal of Ernest H. Quayle; Assistant Field Naturalist. Book XXV through Book XXVIII. April 1 – June 24, 1922’

(under creative commons license (4.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

*********************

edited: 08.08.2021

Mangareva Kingfisher

The Mangareva Kingfisher still is one of the most enigmatic birds I am aware of so far.

The species inhabited the Gambier Islands, and another species occurring 1000s of km to the northwest of it, the Niau Kingfisher (Todiramphus gertrudae Murphy), is still officially assigned to this bird as a subspecies.

I have desperately tried to find the original description of this species, and here it is.:

Il existe, en effet, depuis longtemps dans les galeries du Muséum un Martin- pêcheur qui a été rapporté en 1841 de Mangarewa (archipel Gambier) par l’Astrolabe (Voyage au Pôle Sud) et qui répond exactement à la description et à la figure de l’Halcyon Reichenbachi. Cet oiseau a le sommet de la tête d’un roux qui va en s’éclaircissant et tire au blanc jaunâtre du côté, du front, mais qui est assez intense sur le vertex où se détachent quelques plumes vertes. Sur les oreilles il existe aussi, de chaque côté une tache verte, passant au noirâtre en arrière et tendant à rejoindre une bande noire qui fait le tour de l’occiput. Cette bande foncée limite en dessus un large collier blanc, un peu sali par quelques taches noires, qui se fond sur les côtés dans la teinte blanche qui couvre toutes les parties inférieures du corps, les flancs seuls offrant un peu de roux et encore sur des points cachés entièrement par les ailes. Celles-ci sont d’un vert légèrement bleuâtre, avec des lisérés roux très fins au bord des couvertures alaires. La queue est également d’un vert bleuâtre au milieu, d’un vert mélangé de grisâtre sous lespennes externes, qui sont d’ailleurs incomplètes. Enfin le bec est noir et la mandibule, inférieure blanche ou plutôt jaunâtre dans toute sa portion basilaire. Les pattes sont d’un m brun foncé. La longueur totale de l’oiseau est de 0,170; l’aile mesure 0,090, la queue 0,880, le bec 0,018; le tarse 0,014. Dès 1889, en faisant une revision des Alcédinidés du Muséum en vue de leur instal- lation dans les nouvelles galeries, j’avais désigné ce Martin-pêcheur de Mangarewa sous le nom d“ Halcyon Gambieri; mais je n’en avais pas publié la description jusqu’à ce jour.“ [1]

translation:

For a long time, there has been a kingfisher in the galleries of the Museum who was brought back in 1841 from Mangarewa (Gambier Archipelago) by the Astrolabe (Journey to the South Pole) and who exactly corresponds to the description and the figure of Halcyon Reichenbachi. This bird has the top of the head red that brightens to yellowish white on the side of the forehead but is quite intense on the vertex where some green feathers stand out. On the ears there is also, on each side a green patch, passing blackish back and tending to join a black band that goes around the occiput. This dark band has a large white necklace on top, a little dirty with a few black spots, which is melting on the sides into the white hue that covers all the lower parts of the body, only the flanks offering a little russet and are, on some points, hidden entirely by the wings. These are a slightly bluish green, with very fine red rims at the edge of the wing coverts. The tail is also bluish green in the middle, of a green mixed with greyish under the outer feathers, which are also incomplete. Lastly, the beak is black, and the mandible underneath is white or rather yellowish throughout its base portion. The legs are of a dark brown. The total length of the bird is 0,170; the wing measures 0,090, the tail 0,880, the beak 0,018; Tarsus 0,014. As early as 1889, by making a revision of the Alcedinidae of the Museum with a view to their installation in the new galleries, I had designated this kingfisher of Mangarewa under the name of Halcyon Gambieri; but I had not published the description so far.

***

What I am wondering about most is the fact that the Mangareva – and the Niau Kingfishers still are regarded to as a single species; on the other hand, both forms are rather similar to each other.

Which of the many other Polynesian islands might once have harbored their own kingfisher forms not known to us today?

*********************

[1] M. E. Oustalet: Les Mammifères et les oiseaux des iles Mariannes. Nouvelles archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle 3(7): 141-228. 1895
[2] D. T. Holyoak; J. C. Thibault: Halcyon gambieri gambieri Oustalet, an extinct Kingfisher from Mangareva, South Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 97(1): 21-23. 1977

*********************

… just a sketch, but with colors

*********************

edited: 08.08.2021

Bullshit from David Peters‘ Website – Eofringillirostrum – a tiny Eocene crake, not a finch

posted on February 11, 2019

Ksepka, Grande and Mayr 2019 describe two Early Eocene congeneric bird species. Eofringillirostrum parvulum (Fig. 1) is from Germany, 47mya. Eofringillirostrum boudreauxi from Wyoming, 52mya.

Eofringillirostrum boudreauxi, E. parvulum (Ksepka, Grande and Mayr 2019; IRSNB Av 128a+b; FMNH PA 793; early Eocene; < 10cm long with feathers) was originally considered a finch and a relative of Pumiliornis, a wren-sized Middle Eocene spoonbill. Here Eofringillirostrum nests as a phylogenetically miniaturized corn crake (below). The rail, Crex, is ancestral to chickens, sparrows, moas and parrots, so Eofringillirostrum probably had a Cretaceous origin. A distinctly long fourth toe  was considered capable of being reversed, but no sister taxa with a similar long toe ever reverse it for perching until, many nodes later, parrots appear.

No, if Mr. Peters would just once actually read the papers he is talking about he would have noticed that no one ever considered these two birds to be finches!

No, again, Pumiliornis is not a spoonbill, no matter how hard Mr. Peters wishes!

The genus Crex is not the ancestor of the abovementioned bird genera! 

Corn crake are not ‘perching birds’.  As we learned earlier, taxa formerly considered members of Passeriformes are a much smaller list in the LRT. Birds capable of perching arise in several clades by convergence.
The corn crake is omnivorous but mainly feeds on invertebrates, the occasional small frog or mammal, and plant material including grass seed and cereal grain. It is not a perching bird, but prefers grasslands

I don’t think that Mr. Peters understands the concept of convergence, however, here he is using it right (more or less), maybe by chance ….

According to the LRT, Eofringillirostrum is not a finch, not a seed eater and not a ‘perching bird’ (in the classic sense, but likely evolved perching by convergence) according to phylogenetic analysis and phylogenetic bracketing.)

Right, it is not a finch – but: no one ever said that except for Mr. Peters …. 

It may very well have been a seed eater – just take a look at its beak, it’s a typical seed-eater beak ….

Why is it not a perching bird in the classic sense? The term >perching bird< is not a strictly scientific one, it just refers to birds that are able to sit on a twig by grabbing it with their toes, so …?

*********************

edited: 02.08.2021

More bullshit from David Peters‘ Website – The jabiru: a long-legged kingfisher, not a stork

This abomination was created by David Peters on October 24, 2017 and I have no words to describe how much it hurts reading that stuff!

The jabiru: a long-legged kingfisher, not a stork

Or maybe kingfishers (genus: Megaceryle, Fig. 1) are just neotonous [sic] (juvenile-like) jabirus (genus: Jabiru, Figs. 2, 3). Certainly the jabiru, with its solid beak, ventrally convex jawline and high small naris, are not like other storks.

Well, has he ever looked at other storks?

Megaceryle alcyon (Linneaus [sic] 1758), the extant belted kingfisher, had an enlarged beak on an enlarged skull with a shorter neck. As in parrots, by convergence, the nares have migrated back to the orbit.

Since this species is still extant it did not had, it has …, and all kingfishers have enlarged beaks on enlarged skulls and shorter necks ….

Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein 1819) was a stork-like kingfisher nesting between the stilt/hummingbird clade and the murre/penguin clade (what variety!) Note the high small naris on the ventrally convex rostrum, as in the belted kingfisher.

That is the part that really hurts, the Jabiru is a perfect stork, and the photo DP has chosen to show on his website shows one that has his legs covered in its own feces – something that all storks do to cool down their body temperature, kingfishers, however, don’t … and a stilt/hummingbird- or a murre/penguin clade does not exist ….

If this turns out to be a case of convergence, and it might… that will come with the addition of more taxa. We’ll see…

This is the only time DP mentions convergence, a concept that he usually doesn’t seem to understand … yep, if two species share a similar way of life they may have more or less identical adaptions to that lifestyle (for example: everything that’s living in the water has some fins or flukes of some kind …).

So, in fact, DP says that the Jabiru must be a kingfisher because – and only because – of its beak! He doesn’t think about the hundreds of other features that this species doesn’t have in common with kingfishers but firmly clings to this one – a beak adapted to catch wiggly prey. Wow!

Like already said before, having outlandish ideas is okay, promoting them as being the one and only truth is insane!

*********************

To show you what we talk about here, here are some photographs of the bird species mentioned in the post.:

Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein))

Photo: Bernard Dupont

(under creative commons license (2.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/
Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon (L.))

Photo: Andy Morffew

(under creative commons license (2.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

***

BTW: There is even a so-called Stork-billed Kingfisher (Pelargopsis capensis (L.)), a species that DP probably never has heard of, otherwise he probably would have chosen this one for his “strange suggestions”.

Stork-billed Kingfisher (Pelargopsis capensis (L.))

Photo: Lip Kee

(under creative commons license (2.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

*********************

edited: 31.07.2021 

Just some bullshit found on David Peters‘ website ….

This was posted on David Peters’ website on June 6, 2018.:

Pumiliornis tesellatus [sic] is a wren-sized (shown larger than actual size) Messel pit bird that was originally (Mayr 1999) considered an enigma and later (Mayr 2008) allied with cuckoos. In the large reptile tree (LRT, 1225 taxa) tiny Pumiliornis nests with Platalea, the spoonbill (Fig. 2) as a phylogenetic miniature, close to, but not quite related to the parallel, short-legged genesis of ducks and geese.

I’m not quite sure what this “short-legged genesis” is supposed to be, but the length of the legs does not indicate any relationships between birds but has much more to do with their way of life!

Presbyornis, currently at the base of ducks, still has long legs and a long neck. More derived taxa in the duck branch lose their long legs, although some, like the swan and goose, retain a long neck.

What does that have to do with the genus Pumiliornis or with spoonbills?

Pumiliornis tessellatus (Mayr 1999, 2008; 6cm long; middle Eocene). This wren-sized relative to spoonbills and ancestor to ducks has a spatulate beak tip. This is a neotonous [sic] form of the long-legged spoonbill with juvenile size and proporitons [sic] representing the genesis of a new clade. This fossil contains fossil grains in the cloacal area (white box). Note that no webbing is preserved between the toes. Spoonbills also lack webbed toes.

***

No, it is not a relative of the spoonbills, and it is not at all an ancestor to ducks, which by the way already existed anyway back then, which again would make it even harder to be their ancestor ….

No, its beak tip isn’t spathulate ….

Yep, Pumiliornis was a very small bird – that doesn’t make it neotenous, at least not more so than any other Passeriform bird, which are indeed thought of as being somewhat neotenous compared to non-passeriform birds.

No, its proportions are not those of a juvenile spoonbill ….

Yep, the fossil contains fossil grains – pollen grains, since it obviously was a nectar-feeding bird with an elongated beak as is typical for nectar-feeding birds …. 

No, Spoonbills do not lack webbing on their toes, they actually have small webs along the bases of their toes ….

***

To think that a small nectar-feeding perching bird is the ancestor of ducks and a relative of spoonbills is, well, funny. To promote that bullshit as if it would be the absolute truth, however, is just insane! 

***

I’ll probably take some of my precious time to try to debunk more of David Peter’s nonsense in the future, we’ll see.

***

Why the world really should ignore David Peters

*********************

edited: 30.07.2021

Seltsame Kreidezeit-Füße – Teil 4: YLSNHM01001

YLSNHM01001 ist ein winziges Bernsteinfossil (ca. 2,5 x 1,8 cm), das Teile eines Vogelfußes bzw. Reste der Haut die diesen Fuß einst umgab, inklusive einer der Fußkrallen sowie Teile der Schwanzfedern umfasst.

Trotz der schlechten Erhaltung steht fest, dass es sich hierbei um einen enantiornithiden Vogel handelt sowie ebenfalls um eine bislang unbekannte Art.

Der Fuß (inklusive der Krallen) hat eine Länge von ca. 1,5 cm. Der vierte Zeh des Fußes ist in seinem Umfang etwa doppelt so groß wie die übrigen Zehen, so weit diese zu erkennen sind. Er erscheint auffällig geschwollen, und eventuell litt dieser Vogel an einer Infektion dieses Zehs. Es ist aber auch möglich, dass es sich hierbei um Verwesungsspuren handelt, worauf auch zahlreiche warzenartig aussehende Blasen hindeuten, die sich entlang der erhaltenen Hautpartien erkennen lassen.

Der Gesamtbau des Fußes lässt darauf schließen, dass YLSNHM01001 ein kleiner insektenfangender Miniaturraubvogel gewesen sein dürfte. [1]

*********************

Referenzen: 

[1] Lida Xing; Ryan C. McKellar; Jingmai K. O’Connor; Kecheng Niu: A mid-Cretaceous enantiornithine foot and tail feather preserved in amber. Scientific Reports 9 (1): 1–8. 2019
[2] A. D. Clark; J. K. O’Connor: Exploring the ecomorphology of two Cretaceous enantiornithines with unique pedal morphology. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9: 654156. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2021.654156. 2021

YLSNHM01001
Rekonstruktion des Fußes; links: linker Fuß von der linken Körperseite betrachtet, rechts: rechter Fuß von oben betrachtet
Rekonstruktion des gesamten Vogels; er erreicht hier eine Gesamtlänge von ca 22 cm, ist also gar nicht so winzig wie ich ursprünglich gedacht hatte

an den Füßen und den Schwanzfedern muss ich noch mal arbeiten …

*********************

bearbeitet: 19.06.2021

Fossil record of the Pelecaniformes

Ardeidae

Ardea aurelianensis Milne-Edwards
Ardea brunhuberi von Ammon
Ardea effosa von Meyer
Ardea formosa Milne-Edwards
Ardea latipes von Meyer
Ardea lignitum Gibel
Ardea paloccidentalis Shufeldt
Ardea perplexa Milne-Edwards
Ardea piveteaui Brunet
Ardea polkensis Brodkorb

Ardeagradis arborea Autor ?

Egretta subfluvia Becker

Gnotornis aramiellus Wetmore

Matuku otagoense Scofield et al.

Nycticorax fidens Brodkorb 
Nycticorax sp. ‚Fayyum, Ägypten‘

Palaeophoyx columbiana McCoy

Pikaihao bartlei Worthy et al.

„Proardea“ deschutteri Mayr, De Pietri, Scofield & Smith

Proardeola walkeri Harrison

Zeltornis ginsburgi Balouet

Pelecanidae

Eopelecanus aegyptiacus El Adli et al. [1]

Pelecanus cadimurka Rich & Van Tets
Pelecanus cautleyi Davies
Pelecanus fraasi Lyddeker
Pelecanus gracilis Milne-Edwards
Pelecanus grandiceps Des Vis
Pelecanus halieus Wetmore
Pelecanus intermedius Fraas
Pelecanus odessanus Widhalm
Pelecanus proavus De Vis
Pelecanus schreiberi Olson
Pelecanus sivalensis Davies
Pelecanus tirarensis Miller

Threskiornithidae

Actiornis anglicus Lydekker

Ajaja chione Emslie

Eudocimus leiseyi Emslie
Eudocimus peruvianus Campbell

Gerandibis pagana (Milne-Edwards)

Geronticus cf. calvus (Boddaert) ‚Gauteng, Südafrika‘

Ibidopodia palustris Milne-Edwards

Milnea gracilis Lydekker

Minggangia changgouensis Hou

Protibis cnemialis Ameghino

Rhynchaeites messelensis Wittich
Rhynchaeites sp. ‚Fur Formation, Dänemark‘
Rhynchaeites tanta (Waterhouse et al.)

Sanshuiornis zhangi Wang, Mayr, Zhang & Zhou

Vadaravis brownae Smith, Grande & Clarke

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References:

[1] Joseph J. El Adli; Jeffrey A. Wilson Mantilla; Mohammed Sameh M. Antar; Philip D. Gingerich: The earliest recorded fossil pelican, recovered from the late Eocene of Wadi Al-Hitan, Egypt. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 2021. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2021.1903910

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edited: 04.06.2021

Fossile Apterygiformes

Apterygidae

Apteryx littoralis Tennyson & Tomotani [1]

Proapteryx micromeros Worthy et al.

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Quelle:

[1] Alan James Drummond Tennyson; Barbara Mizumo Tomotani: A new fossil species of Kiwi (Aves: Apterygidae) from the mid-Pleistocene of New Zealand. Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology 2021

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bearbeitet: 24.04.2021

Feldsperling

Feldsperlinge gehören zu meinen absoluten Lieblingsvögeln, wenn man genau hinschaut kann man in ihrem kastanienbraunen Käppchen einen ganz zarten Hauch von Violett erkennen.

Feldsperling (Passer montanus ssp. montanus); eine hauptsächlich asiatische Art, die hierzulande eher selten ist; die Geschlechter lassen sich, im Gegensatz zum Haussperling, äußerlich nicht unterscheiden

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bearbeitet: 25.04.2021

Mäusebussard

Neben dem Mäusebussard sieht man hier oft Rotmilane (Milvus milvus) und immer häufiger Weihen, vermutlich Rohrweihen (Circus aeruginosus), die man an ihrem einzigartigen Flugstil erkennen kann (wenn man ihn einmal gesehen und sich eingeprägt hat). 🙂

Mäusebussard (Buteo buteo ssp. buteo); nicht das beste Foto

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bearbeitet: 25.04.2021

Schwarzkehltrogon – aus 1 mach 5

Der Schwarzkehltrogon (Trogon rufus Gmelin) wurde untersucht und dabei wurde festgestellt, dass drei seiner fünf anerkannten Unterarten Artstatus erhalten sollten, außerdem wurde noch eine neue Form beschrieben.:

Kerrs Schwarzkehltrogon (Trogon cupreicauda (Chapman))
Alagoas-Schwarzkehltrogon (Trogon muriciensis Dickens et al.)
Anmutiger Schwarzkehltrogon (Trogon tenellus Cabanis)
Südlicher Schwarzkehltrogon (Trogon chrysochloros Pelzeln)

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Anmutiger Schwarzkehltrogon (Trogon tenellus Cabanis); ehemals eine Unterart des Schwarzkehltrogons

Foto: Charlie Jackson

(under creative commons license (2.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

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Quelle:

[1] Jeremy Kenneth Dickens, Pierre-Paul Bitton, Gustavo A Bravo, Luís Fábio Silveira. Species limits, patterns of secondary contact and a new species in the Trogon rufus complex (Aves: Trogonidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 169. 2021

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bearbeitet: 23.04.2021

Shengjingornis yangi Li, Wang, Zhang & Hou

Dieses nette kleine Vögelchen, welches in etwa eine Länge von nicht ganz 20 cm erreicht haben dürfte, stammt aus Schichten, die sich auf ein Alter von 122 Millionen Jahren datieren lassen.

Die Art ist bislang wohl nur anhand eines einzigen Skelettes bekannt, das dafür aber vollständig ist; das Gefieder ist allerdings nicht erhalten.

Der Schnabel, wenn man das Schnäuzchen denn so nennen möchte, war leicht abwärts gebogen und trug ganz vorn noch ein paar winzige Zähnchen. [1]

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Rekonstruktion, ich habe mich strikt an das Skelett gehalten … und trotzdem sieht das Ergebnis wie eine Taube aus

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Quelle:

[1] Li Li; Jinqi Wang; Xi Zhang; Shilin Hou: A new enantiornithine bird from the lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation in Jinzhou Area, western Liaoning Province, China. Acta Geologica Sinica 86(5): 1039-1044. 2012 

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bearbeitet: 13.04.2021