Fossil record of the Anseriformes

Family incertae sedis

Conflicto antarcticus Tambussi et al.

Eoneornis australis Ameghino

Eutelornis patagonicus Ameghino

Kookne yeutensis Novas et. al. (?)

Naranbulagornis khun Zelenkov

„Oxyura“ doksana Mlíkovský

Palaeopapia eous Harrison & Walker
Palaeopapia hamstaeadiensis Harrison & Walker

Paracygnopterus scotti Harrison & Walker

Paranyroca magna Miller & Compton

Petropluvialis simplex Harrison & Walker

Anatidae

Afrocygnus chauvireae Louchart, Vignaud, Likius, Mackaye & Brunet

Aix praeclara Zelenkoy & Kurochkin

Aldabranas cabri Harrison & Walker

Aminornis excavatus Ameghino

Anabernicula gracilenta Ross
Anabernicula oregonensis Howard

Anas amotape Campbell
Anas apscheronica Burchak-Abramovich
Anas basaltica Bayer
Anas crassa Milne-Edwards
Anas isarensis Lambrecht
Anas itchtucknee McCoy
Anas kurochkini Zelenkov & Panteleyev
Anas luederitzensis Lambrecht
Anas macroptera Milne-Edwards
Anas meyeri Milne-Edwards
Anas pachyscelus Wetmore
Anas risgoviensis von Ammon
Anas robusta Milne-Edwards
Anas sanctaehelenae Campbell
Anas schneideri Emslie
Anas skalicensis Bayer
Anas soporata Kurochkin
Anas talarae Campbell

Ankonetta larriestrai Cenizo & Agnolín

Anser arenosus Bickart
Anser arizonae Bickart
Anser atavus Fraas
Anser azerbaidzhanicus Serebrovskii
Anser cygniformis Fraas
Anser devjatkini Kuročkin
Anser eldaricus Burchak-Abramovich & Gadzyev
Anser oeningensis (Meyer)
Anser pratensis (Short)
Anser pressus (Brodkorb)
Anser tchikoicus Kuročkin
Anser thompsoni Martin & Mengel
Anser thraceiensis Burchak-Abramovich & Nikolov

Anserobranta robusta (Milne-Edwards)
Anserobranta tarabukinii (Kurochkin & Ganea)

Archaeocycnus lacustris De Vis

Australotadorna alecwilsoni Worthy

Aythya denesi (Kessler)

Branta dickeyi Miller
Branta esmeralda (Burt)
Branta howardae Miller
Branta hypsibata (Cope)
Branta propinqua Shufeldt
Branta thessaliensis Boev & Koufos
Branta woolfendeni Bickart

Cayaoa bruneti Tonni

Chendytes milleri Howard

Chenoanas asiatica Zelenkov et al.
Chenoanas deserta Zelenkov
Chenoanas sansaniensis (Milne-Edwards)

Chenopis nanus De Vis

Cousteauvia kustovia Zelenkov [1]

Cygnavus formosus Kurochkin
Cygnavus senckenbergi Lambrecht

Cygnopterus affinis (Van Beneden)

Cygnus atavus (Fraas)
Cygnus csakvarensis Lambrecht
Cygnus equitum Bate
Cygnus falconeri Parker
Cygnus hibbardi Brodkorb
Cygnus lacustris (De Vis)
Cygnus liskunae (Kuročkin)
Cygnus mariae Bickart
Cygnus paloregonus Cope
Cygnus pristinus Kurochkin
Cygnus sp. ‘Dursunlu, Turkey’
Cygnus verae Boev

Dendrochen robusta Miller

Dunstanetta johnstoneorum Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Eonessa anaticula Wetmore

Eremochen russelli Brodkorb

Garganornis ballmanni H. J. M. Meyer

Guguschia nailiae Aslanova & Burczak-Abramovicz

Loxornis clivus Ameghino

Manuherikia douglasi Worthy, Tennyson, Hand & Scofield
Manuherikia lacustrina Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas
Manuherikia minuta Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Matanas enrighti Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Megalodytes morejohni Howard

Mergellus mochanovi Zelenkov & Kurochkin

Mionetta blanchardi (Milne-Edwards)
Mionetta consobrina (Milne-Edwards)
Mionetta eversa (Wetmore)
Mionetta natator (Milne-Edwards)

Miotadorna sanctibathansi Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Nettapus anatoides Depéret

Nogusunna conflictoides Zelenkov

Oxyura bessomi Howard
Oxyura hulberti Emslie
Oxyura zapatanima Alvarez

Pinpanetta fromensis Worthy
Pinpanetta tedfordi Worthy
Pinpanetta vickersrichae Worthy

Protomelanitta bakeri Stidham & Zelenkov
Protomelanitta gracilis Zelenkov

Romainvillia kazakhstanensis Zelenkov
Romainvillia stehlini
 Ledebinsky

Saintandrea chenoides Mayr & De Pietri

Sharganetta mongolica Zelenkov

Sinanas diatomas Yeh

Telornis impressus Ameghino

Tirarinetta kanuka Worthy

Anhimidae

Chaunoides antiquus Alvarenga

Anseranatidae

Anatalavix oxfordi Olson
Anatalavis rex (Shufeldt)

Anserpica kiliani Mourer-Chauviré

Eoanseranas handae Worthy & Scanlon

Brontornithidae

Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat

Presbyornithidae

Haedonornis hantoniensis Harrison & Walker

Presbyornis isoni Olson
Presbyornis mongoliensis Kurochkin & Dyke
Presbyornis pervetus Wetmore
Presbyornis recurvirostrus Hardy

Telmabates antiquus Howard
Telmabates howardae Cracraft

Teviornis gobiensis Kurochkin et al.

Wilaru prideauxi De Pietri et al.
Wilaru tedfordi Boles et al.

Zhylgaia aestiflua Nessov

*********************

References:

[1] Nikita Zelenkov: The oldest diving anseriform bird from the late Eocene of Kazakhstan and the evolution of aquatic adaptations in the intertarsal joint of waterfowl. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 65 (4): 733-742. 2020

*********************

edited: 20.01.2021

Fossil record of the Passeriformes

Familie incertae sedis

Certhiops rummeli Manegold

Corvitalusoides grandiculus Boles

Jamna szybiaki Bocheński, Tomek, Bujoczek & Wertz

Kischinskinia scandens Volkova & Zelenkov

Resoviaornis jamrozi Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz & Świdnicka

Sylvosimadaravis janossyi (Kessler et Hír)

Winnicavis gorskii Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz, Happ, Bujoczek & Świdnicka

Acanthisittidae

Kuiornis indicator Worthy et al.

Acanthizidae

Acanthizidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Acrocephalidae

Acrocephalus major Kessler
Acrocephalus minor Kessler
Acrocephalus kordosi Kessler
Acrocephalus kretzoii Kessler
Acrocephalus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Hippolais veterior Kessler

Aegithalidae

Aegithalos congruis Kessler
Aegithalos gaspariki Kessler

Alaudidae

Alauda trivadari Kessler
Alauda xerarvensis Boev [2]

Ammomanes prealpestris (Boev)

Calandrella gali Kessler

Eremarida xerophila Boev [2]

Eremophila alpestris ssp. [4]
Eremophila orkhonensis (Zelenkov & Kurochkin)

Galerida bulgarica Boev [2]
Galerida cserhatensis Kessler & Hír
Galerida pannonica Kessler

Lullula balcanica Boev [2]
Lullula minor Kessler
Lullula minuscula Kessler
Lullula neogradensis Kessler & Hír
Lullula parva Kessler
Lullula slivnicensis Boev [2]

Melanocorypha donchevi Boev [2]
Melanocorypha minor Kessler
Melanocorypha serdicensis Boev [2]

Praealauda hevesensis Kessler & Hír

Artamidae

Kurrartapu johnnguyeni Nguyen et al.

Bombycillidae

Bombycilla brevia Kessler
Bombycilla hamori Kessler & Hír
Bombycilla kubinyii Kessler

Cardinalidae

Passerina sp. ‘Yepómera, Mexico’

Certhiidae

Certhia immensa Kessler

Cettidae

Cettia janossyi Kessler
Cettia kalmani Kessler

Cinclidae

Cinclus gaspariki Kessler
Cinclus major Kessler & Hír
Cinclus minor Kessler

Cinclosomatidae

Cinclosoma elachum Nguyen, Archer & Hand

Climacteridae

Climacteris sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Cormobates sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Corvidae

Corvus annectens Shufeldt
Corvus bragai Paiva [6]
Corvus harkanyensis
 Kessler
Corvus hungaricus Lambrecht
Corvus pliocaenicus (Portis)
Corvus praecorax Depéret
Corvus shufeldti Sharpe

Henocitta brodkorbi Holman

Miocitta galbraethi Brodkorb

Miocorvus larteti (Milne-Edwards)

Miopica paradoxa Kurotschkin & Sobolew

Pica pica ssp. major Mourer-Chauviré
Pica mourerae Seguí

Protocitta ajax Brodkorb
Protocitta dixi Brodkorb

Pyrrhocorax graculus ssp. vetus Kretzoi

Dasyornithidae

Dasyornis walterbolesi Nguyen

Emberizidae

Emberiza bartkoi Kessler & Hír
Emberiza gaspariki Kessler
Emberiza media Kessler
Emberiza pannonica Kessler
Emberiza parva Kessler
Emberiza polgardiensis Kessler

Pedinorhis stirpsarcana Olson & McKittrick

Plectrophenax veterior Kessler

Estrildidae

Estrildidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Eurylaimidae

Eurylaimidae gen. & sp. ‘Wintersdorf, Germany’

Wieslochia weissi Mayr & Manegold [7]

Fringillidae

Carduelis kretzoii Kessler
Carduelis lambrechti Kessler
Carduelis medius Kessler
Carduelis parvulus Kessler

Coccothraustes balcanicus Boev
Coccothraustes major Kessler
Coccothraustes simeonovi Boev

Fringilla kormosi Kessler
Fringilla petenyii Kessler

Loxia csarnotanus Kessler
Loxia patevi Boev

Pinicola kubinyii Kessler

Pyrrhula gali Kessler
Pyrrhula minor Kessler

Furnariidae

Pseudoseisuropsis nehuen Noriega
Pseudoseisuropsis cuelloi Claramunt & Rinderknecht
Pseudoseisuropsis wintu Stefanini et al.

Hirundinidae

Delichon major Kessler
Delichon polgardiensis Kessler
Delichon pusillus Kessler

Hirundinidae gen. & sp. ‘Langebaanweg, South Africa’ (several spp.)

Hirundo aprica Feduccia
Hirundo gracilis Kessler
Hirundo major Kessler

Riparia minor Kessler

Icteridae

Cremaster tytthus (Brodkorb)

Euphagus magnirostris
 (Miller)

Icterus turmalis
Steadman & Oswald [5]

Molothrus resinosus
Steadman & Oswald [5]

Pandanaris convexa
 (Miller)

Pyelorhamphus molothroides
 (Miller)

Laniidae

Lanius capeki Kessler
Lanius hungaricus Kessler
Lanius intermedius Kessler
Lanius major Kessler
Lanius schreteri Kessler & Hír

Leiotrichidae

Turdoides borealis Jánossy

Locustellidae

Locustella janossyi Kessler
Locustella kordosi Kessler
Locustella mana Kessler

Locustellidae gen. & sp.
 ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Megalurus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Maluridae

Maluridae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Meliphagidae

Meliphagidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’ (several spp.)

Menuridae

Menura tyawanoides Boles

Motacillidae

Anthus antecedens Kessler & Hír
Anthus baranensis Kessler
Anthus hiri Kessler

Motacilla intermedia Kessler
Motacilla minor Kessler
Motacilla robusta Kessler

Muscicapidae

Erithacus horusitzkyi Kessler & Hír
Erithacus minor Kessler

Luscinia denesi Kessler
Luscinia pliocaenica Kessler
Luscinia praeluscinia Kessler & Hír

Monticola pongraczii Kessler

Muscicapa leganyii Kessler & Hír
Muscicapa miklosi
 Kessler
Muscicapa petenyii Kessler

Oenanthe kormosi Kessler
Oenanthe pongraczi Kessler

Phoenicurus baranensis Kessler
Phoenicurus erikai Kessler

Saxicola baranensis Kessler
Saxicola lambrechti Kessler
Saxicola magna Kessler
Saxicola parva Kessler

Neosittidae

Daphoenositta trevorworthyi Nguyen

Oriolidae

Longimornis robustirostrata Boles

Oriolus beremendensis Kessler

Orthonychidae

Orthonyx kaldowinyeri Boles

Palaeoscinidae (?)

Palaeoscinis turdirostris Howard

Paridae

Parus medius Kessler
Parus parvulus Kessler
Parus robustus Kessler

Passerellidae

Ammodramus eurius Brodkorb
Ammodramus hatcheri (Shufeldt)

Passeridae

Passer hiri Kessler
Passer minusculus Kessler
Passer pannonicus Kessler
Passer predomesticus Tchernov

Petroicidae

Petroicidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Phylloscopidae

Phylloscopus miocaenicus Kessler & Hír
Phylloscopus pliocaenicus Kessler
Phylloscopus venczeli Kessler

Pomatostomidae

Pomatostomus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Prunellidae

Prunella freudenthali Kessler
Prunella kormosi Kessler

Psittacopedidae

Eofringillirostrum boudreauxi Mayr, Ksepka & Grande
Eofringillirostrum parvulum Mayr, Ksepka & Grande

Morsoravis sedilis Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Chiappe

Parapsittacopes bergdahli Mayr [8]

Psittacopes lepidus Mayr & Daniels

Pumiliornis tessellatus Mayr

Regulidae

Regulus bulgaricus Boev
Regulus pliocaenicus Kessler

Sittidae

Sitta gracilis Kessler
Sitta ‚pusilla‚ Kessler (species name already taken!)
Sitta senogalliensis Portis
Sitta villanyensis Kessler

Sturnidae

Sturnus baranensis Kessler
Sturnus brevis Kessler
Sturnus kretzoii Kessler & Hír
Sturnus pliocaenicus Kessler

Sylviidae

Sylvia intermedia Kessler
Sylvia pussila Kessler

Tichodromidae

Tichodroma apeki Kessler

Troglodytidae

Troglodytes robustus Kessler

Turdidae

Meridiocichla salotti Louchart

Turdicus minor Kessler & Hír
Turdicus pannonicus Kessler

Turdus major Kessler
Turdus medius Kessler
Turdus minor Kessler
Turdus miocaenicus Kessler
Turdus polgardiensis Kessler

Zygodactylidae

Eozygodactylus americanus Weidig

Primoscens minutus Harrison & Walker

Primozygodactylus ballmanni Mayr
Primozygodactylus danielsi Mayr
Primozygodactylus eunjooae Mayr & Zelenkov
Primozygodactylus longibrachium Mayr
Primozygodactylus major Mayr
Primozygodactylus quintus Mayr

Zygodactylus grandei Smith, DeBee & Clarke
Zygodactylus grivensis Ballmann
Zygodactylus ignotus Ballmann
Zygodactylus luberonensis Mayr
Zygodactylus ochlurus Hieronymus, Waugh & Clarke

*********************

References:

[1] Jeno Kessler; János Hír: The avifauna in North Hungary during the Miocene Part II. Földtani Közlöny 142(2): 149-168. 2012
[2] Zlatozar Boev: Neogene Larks (Aves: Alaudidae (Vigors, 1825)) from Bulgaria. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 64(3): 295-318. 2012
[3] Nikita V. Zelenkov: The revised avian fauna of Rudabànya (Hungary, Late Miocene). Contribuciones del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturalis “Bernardino Rivadavia” 7: 253-266. 2017
[4] Nicolas Dussex; David W. G. Stanton; Hanna Sigeman; Per G. P. Ericson; Jacquelyn Gill; Daniel C. Fisher; Albert V. Protopopov; Victoria L. Herridge; Valery Plotnikov; Bengt Hansson; Love Dalén: Biomolecular analyses reveal the age, sex and species identity of a near-intact Pleistocene bird carcass. Communications Biology 3: 1-6. 2020
[5] David W. Steadman; Jessica A. Oswald: New species of troupial (Icterus) and cowbird (Molothrus) from ice-age Peru. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 132 (1): 91–103. 2020
[6] Marco Pavia: Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Cradle of Humankind during the Plio-Pleistocene transition, inferred from the analysis of fossil birds from Member 2 of the hominin-bearing site of Kromdraai (Gauteng, South Africa)  Quaternary Science Reviews. 248: Article 106532. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2020.106532. 2020
[7] Jon Fjeldså; Les Christidis; Per G. P. Ericson: The Largest Avian Radiation: The Evolution of Perching Birds, or the Order Passeriformes. Lynx Edicions 2020
[8] Gerald Mayr: A remarkably complete skeleton from the London Clay provides insights into the morphology and diversity of early Eocene zygodactyl near-passerine birds. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 12 Jan 2021

*********************

edited: 20.01.2021

Fossil record of the Galliformes

Family incertae sedis

Archaealectrornis sibleyi Crowe & Short

Archaeophasianus mioceanus Lambrecht
Archaeophasianus roberti (Stone)

Argillipes aurorum Harrison & Walker
Argillipes paralectoris Harrison & Walker

Austinornis lentus Marsh

Chambiortyx cristata Mourer-Chauviré

Coturnipes cooperi Harrison & Walker

Namaortyx sperrgebietensis Mourer-Chauviré

Palaeonossax senectus Wetmore

Palaeorallus alienus Kuročkin

Sobniogallus albinojamrozi Tomek et al.

Procrax brevipes Tordoff & Macdonald

Cracidae

Boreortalis laesslei Brodkorb

Ortalis affinis Feduccia & Wilson

Gallinuloididae

Gallinuloides wyomingensis Eastman

Paraortygoides messelensis Mayr
Paraortygoides radagasti Dyke & Gulas

Megapodidae

Garrdimalga mcnamarai Shute, Prideaux & Worthy

Latagallina naracoortensis Shute, Prideaux & Worthy
Latagallina olsoni Shute, Prideaux & Worthy

Progura campestris Shute, Prideaux & Worthy
Progura gallinacea De Vis

Ngawupodius minya Boles & Ivison

Numididae

Telecrex grangeri Wetmore

Odontophoridae

Cyrtonyx tedfordi Miller

Miortyx aldeni Howard
Miortyx teres Miller

Nanortyx inexpectatus Weigel

Neortyx peninsularis Holman

Paraortygidae

Paraortyx brancoi Gaillard
Paraortyx lorteti Gaillard

Pirortyx major (Gaillard)

Scopelortyx klinghardtensis Mourer-Chauvire et al.

Taoperdix miocaena Ballman
Taoperdix pessieti Gervais

Xorazmortyx turkestanensis Zelenkov & Panteleyev

Phasianidae

Alectoris baryosefi Černov
Alectoris peii Author ?
“Alectoris” pliocaena Tugarinov

Bantamyx georgicus Kurochkin

Bonasa praebonasia (Jánossy)

Chauvireria bulgarica Boev [1]

Dendragapus gilli (Shufeldt)
Dendragapus lucasi Howard
Dendragapus nanus (Shufeldt)

Diangallus mious Hou

Eurobambusicola turolicus Zelenkov

“Gallus” aesculapii Jánossy
“Gallus” beremendensis Jánossy
“Gallus” europaeus Harrison
Gallus georgicus Author ?
Gallus imereticus Author ?
Gallus karabachensis Baryšnikov & Potapova
Gallus kudarensis Burčak-Abramovič & Potapova
Gallus meschtscheriensis Author ?
Gallus sp. ‘Trinka Cave, Moldovia’
Gallus sp. ‘Krivtcha Cave, Ukraine’
Gallus tamanensis Author ?

Lagopus atavus Jánossy
Lagopus balcanicus Boev
Lagopus lagopus ssp. noaillensis Mourer-Chauviré
Lagopus mutus ssp. correzensis Mourer-Chauviré

Linquornis gigantis Yeh

Lophogallus naranbulakensis Zelenkov & Kurochkin

Megalocoturnix cordoni Sánchez Marco

Meleagris altus Marsh
Meleagris californica (Miller)
Meleagris celer Marsh
Meleagris leopoldi Miller & Bowman
Meleagris richmondi Shufeldt
Meleagris tridens Wetmore

Miophasianus altus Milne-Edwards
Miophasianus desnoyersi Milne-Edwards
Miophasianus medius Milne-Edwards

Mioryaba magyarica Zelenkov

Palaeocryptonyx depereti Gaillard
Palaeocryptonyx donnezani Deperet
Palaeocryptonyx gaillardi Ennouchi
Palaeocryptonyx grivensis Ennouchi

Palaeoperdix longipes Milne-Edwards
Palaeoperdix prisca Milne-Edwards
Palaeoperdix sansaniensis Milne-Edwards

Palaeortyx blanchardi Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx brevipes Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx caluxyensis Lydekker
Palaeortyx depereti Ennouchi
Palaeortyx edwardsi Depéret
Palaeortyx gaillardi Lambrecht
Palaeortyx gallica Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx grivensis Lydekker
Palaeortyx intermedia Ballman
Palaeortyx joleaudi Ennouchi
Palaeortyx major Gaillard
Palaeortyx maxima Lydekker
Palaeortyx media Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx miocaena Gaillard
Palaeortyx ocyptera Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx phasianoides Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx volans Gohlich & Pavia

Panraogallus hezhengensis Li et. al.

Pavo bravardi (Gervais)
Pavo moldovicus (Bocheński & Kurochkin)
Pavo sp. ‘Aramis, Ethiopia’

Pediocetes lucasi Shufeldt
Pediocetes nanus Shufeldt

Perdix palaeoperdix Mourer-Chauviré

Phasianus bulgaricus Boev [2]

Plioperdix hungarica Jánossy

Proagriocharis kimballensis Martin & Tate

Rhegminornis calobates Wetmore

Rustaviornis georgicus Burchak-Abramovich & Meladze

Schaubortyx keltica Eastman

Shandongornis shanwangensis Yeh
Shandongornis yinanensis Yeh

Shanxiornis fenyinis Wang et al.

Syrmaticus phasianoides (Jánossy)

Tetrao conjugens Jánossy
Tetrao macropus Jánossy
Tetrao partium (Kretzoi)
Tetrao praeurogallus Jánossy
Tetrao rhodopensis Boev

Tologuica aurorae Zelenkov & Kurochkin
Tologuica karhui Zelenkov & Kurochkin

“Tympanuchus” lulli Shufeldt
“Tympanuchus” stirtoni Miller

Quercymegapodiidae

Ameripodius alexis Mourer-Chauviré
Ameripodius silvasantosi Alvarenga

Ludiortyx hoffmanni (Gervais)

Quercymegapodius brodkorbi Mourer-Chauviré
Quercymegapodius depereti (Gaillard)

Taubacrex granivora Alvarenga

***

Note that this list is far from being complete.

*********************

References:

[1] Zlatozae Boev: Chauvireria bulgarica sp. n. — an extinct Early Pleistocene small phasianid of Phasianinae Horsfield, 1821 from Bulgaria. Historia naturalis bulgarica 41(8): 55-70. 2020
[2] Zlatozar Boev: First European Neogene record of true pheasants from Gorna Sushitsa (SW Bulgaria). Historia naturalis bulgarica 41(5): 33-39. 2020

*********************

edited: 20.01.2021

Fossil record of the Gruiformes

Family incertae sedis

Loncornis erectus Ameghino

Wanshuina lii Hou

Aptornithidae

Aptornis proasciarostratus Worthy, Tennyson & Scofield

Aramidae

Badistornis aramus Wetmore

Eogruidae

Amphipelargus cracrafti (Harrison & Walker)
Amphipelargus majori Lydekker
Amphipelargus sp. ‘Kryopigi, Greece’

Eogrus aeola Wetmore
Eogrus crudus Kurochkin
Eogrus turanicus (Bendukidze)

Ergilornis rapidus Kozlova
Ergilornis minor (Kozlova)

Sinoergilornis guangheensis Muster, Li & Clarke

Sonogrus gregalis Kurochkin

Urmiornis brodkorbi Karhu
Urmiornis dzabghanensis (Kurochkin)
Urmiornis maraghanus Mecquenem
Urmiornis orientalis (Kurochkin)
Urmiornis ukrainus Kurochkin

Geranoididae

Eogeranoides campivagus Cracraft

Geranodornis aenigma Cracraft

Geranoides jepseni Wetmore

Palaeophasianus meleagroides Shufeldt

Paragrus prentici (Loomis)
Paragrus shufeldti Cracraft

Gruidae

Aramornis longurio Wetmore

Balearica excelsa Milne-Edwards
Balearica exigua Feduccia & Voorhies
Balearica rummeli Mlíkovský

Camusia quintanai Seguí

Eobalearica rinovi Gureev

Geranopsis hastingsiae Lydekker

Grus afghana Mourer-Chauviré et al.
Grus bogatshevi Serebrovakii
Grus cubensis Fischer & Stephan
Grus haydeni Marsh
Grus latipes Wetmore
Grus marshi Shufeldt
Grus melitensis Lydekker
Grus mongolica (Kurochkin)
Grus nannodes Wetmore & Martin
Grus pagei Campbell
Grus penteleci (Gaudry)
Grus primigenia Milne-Edwards
Grus sp. ‘Ryukuyu Islands, Japan’
Grus turfa Portis

Palaeogrus excelsa Milne-Edwards
Palaeogrus hordwelliensis Lydekker
Palaeogrus princeps (Portis)

Heliornithidae

Heliornithidae gen. & sp. ‘Pungo River Formation, USA’

Messelornithidae

Itardiornis hessae Mourer-Chauviré

Messelornis cristata Hesse,
Messelornis nearctica Hesse
Messelornis russelli Mourer-Chaviré

Pellornis mikkelseni Bertelli et al.

Walbeckornis creber Mayr

Parvigruidae

Parvigrus pohli Mayr

Rupelrallus saxoniensis Fischer

Rallidae

Aletornis bellus Marsh
Aletornis nobilis Marsh
Aletornis pernix Marsh

Australlus disneyi (Boles)
Australlus gagensis Worthy & Boles

Baselrallus intermedius De Pietri & Mayr

Belgirallus minutus Mayr & Smith
Belgirallus oligocaenus Mayr & Smith

Creccoides osbornii Shufeldt

Crexica crexica Zelenkov, Panteleyev & De Pietri

Eocrex primus Wetmore

Fulica infelix Brodkorb
Fulica americana ssp. shufeldti Brodkorb
Fulica montanei Alarcón-Muñoz, Labarca & Soto-Acuña [1]
Fulica stekelesi Tchernov

Fulicaletornis venustus Marsh

Gallinula sp. ‘Csarnota, Hungary’
Gallinula kansarum Brodkorb
Gallinula balcanica Boev

Ibidopsis hordwelliensis Lydekker

Latipons gardneri Harrison & Walker

Litorallus livezeyi Mather et al.

Miofulica dejardini Van Beneden

Miohypotaenidia tanaisensis Zelenkov, Panteleyev & De Pietri

Miorallus major Lambrecht

Palaeoaramides christyi (Milne-Edwards)
Palaeoaramides eximius Brodkorb

Palaeorallus troxelli Wetmore

Paraortygometra porzanoides Lambrecht

Pararallus dispar (Milne-Edwards)
Pararallus hassenkampi Martini

Pardirallus lacustris (Brodkorb)

Parvirallus gracilis Harrison & Walker

Pastushkinia zazhigini (Kurochkin)

Pleistorallus flemingi Worthy

“Porzana” botunensis Boev
“Porzana” estramosi Jánossy
“Porzana” kretzoii (Kessler)
“Porzana” piercei Olson & Wingate
“Porzana” risilla (Kurochkin)
“Porzana” sp. ‘QM F23253, Australia’
“Porzana” sp. ‘Văršec, Bulgaria’
“Porzana” veterior (Jánossy) 

Priscaweka parvales Mather et al.

Quercyrallus arenarius Milne-Edwards
Quercyrallus dasypus Milne-Edwards
Quercyrallus ludianus Brodkorb

Rallicrex kolozsvarensis Lambrecht

Rallidae gen. & sp. ‘Chono-Harayah, Mongolia’
Rallidae gen. & sp. ‘Jamna Dolna, Poland’

Rallus auffenbergi Brodkorb
Rallus cyanocavi Steadman et al.
Rallus ibycus Olson & Wingate
Rallus natator Miller
Rallus philipsi Wetmore
Rallus polgardiensis (Jánossy)
Rallus prenticei Wetmore
Rallus recessus Olson & Wingate
Rallus richmondi Olson
Rallus sp. ‘Mátraszõlõs, Hungary’
Rallus sp. ‘Ryukyu Islands, Japan’
Rallus sp. ‘Saw Rock Canyon, USA’

Rhenanorallus rhenanus Mayr

Youngornis gracilis Yeh
Youngornis qiluensis Yeh

Songziidae

Songzia acutunguis Wang, Mayr,  Zhang & Zhou
Songzia heidangkouensis Hou

*********************

References:

[1] Jhonatan Alarcón-Muñoz; Rafael Labarca; Sergio Soto-Acuña: Holocene rails (Gruiformes: Rallidae) of Laguna de Tagua Tagua Formation, central Chile, with the description of a new extinct giant coot. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 104. 2020

*********************

edited: 20.01.2021

Fossil record of bird Coraciiformes

Family incertae sedis

Paracoracias occidentalis Clarke et al.

Quasisyndactylus longibrachis Mayr

Ueekenkcoracias tambussiae Degrange, Diego Pol, Pablo Puerta & Peter Wilf [1]

Alcedinidae

Halcyoninae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Coraciidae

Eurystomus beremendensis Kessler

Miocoracias chenevali
 Mourer-Chauviré, Peyrouse & Hugueney

Eocoraciidae

Eocoracias brachyptera Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré

Geranopteridae

Geranopterus alatus Milne-Edwards
Geranopterus bohemicus Mlikovský
Geranopterus milneedwardsi Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré

Meropidae

Merops radobojensis (Meyer)

Momotidae

Momotidae gen. & sp. ‘Florida, USA’

Protornis glarniensis
 von Meyer (?)

Primobucconidae

Primobucco frugilegus Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré
Primobucco mcgrewi Brodkorb
Primobucco perneri Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré

Septencoracias morsensis
 Bourdon et al.

Todidae

Palaeotodus emryi Olson
Palaeotodus escampsiensis Mourer-Chauviré
Palaeotodus itardiensis Mourer-Chauviré

*********************

References:

[1] Federico J. Degrange; Diego Pol; Pablo Puerta; Peter Wilf: Unexpected larger distribution of paleogene stem-rollers (AVES, CORACII): new evidence from the Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Scientific Reports 11: 1363. 2021

*********************

edited: 15.01.2021

Black-headed Bulbul (Brachypodius atriceps)

The original is a photo by Mike Rose (https://eye4birds.photography), who kindly gave me the permission to use it. This is actually the first time a did a background with actual aquarell colors (watercolors), I’m not totally okay with the background, but the bird is quite fine!

Fossil record of the Cathartiformes

Cathartidae

Aizenogyps toomeyae Emslie

Brasilogyps faustoi Alvarenga

Breagyps clarki Miller

Diatropornis ellioti (Milne-Edwards)

Cathartes emsliei Suárez & Olson [2]

Coragyps occidentalis Miller
Coragyps seductus Suárez [3]

Geronogyps reliquus Campbell

Gymnogyps amplus Miller
Gymnogyps howardae Campbell
Gymnogyps kofordi Emslie
Gymnogyps varonai (Arredondo)

Hadrogyps aigialeus Emslie

Pampagyps imperator Agnolin et al. [1]

Perugyps diazi Stucchi & Emslie

Phasmagyps patritus Wetmore

Pleistovultur nevesi Alvarenga et al.

Pliogyps charon Becker
Pliogyps fisheri Tordoff

Sarcoramphus fisheri Campbell

Wingegyps cartellei Alvarenga & Olson

Teratornithidae

Aiolornis incredibilis (Howard)

Argentavis magnificens Campbell & Tonni

Cathartornis gracilis Miller

Taubatornis campbelli Olson & Alvarenga

Teratornis merriami Millner
Teratornis woodburnensis Campbell & Stenger

*********************

References:

[1] Federico L. Agnolin; Federico Brissón Egli; Esteban Soibelzon; Sergio G. Rodriguez; Leopoldo H. Soibelzon; Facundo Iacona; David Piazza: A new large Cathartidae from the Quaternary of Argentina, with a review of the fossil record of condors in South America. Contribuciones Científicas del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” 7: 1-16. 2017
[2] William Suárez; Storrs L. Olson: A new fossil vulture (Cathartidae: Cathartes) from Quaternary asphalt and cave deposits in Cuba. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 140(3): 335-343. 2020
[3] William Suárez: The fossil avifauna of the tar seeps Las Breas de San Felipe, Matanzas, Cuba. Zootaxa 4780(1). 2020

*********************

edited: 07.01.2021

„Debunking“ DP’s Asteriornis post from March 19, 2020

Asteriornis maastrichtensis Field, Benito, Chen, Jagt & Ksepka, described in 2020, is the oldest known member of the clade Pangalloanserae, that is a clade that contains the Anseriformes (ducks, geese etc.) as well as the Galliformes (chickens and allies) as well as some now completely extinct forms. [1]

In the disturbing world of DP however, this species is a part of a funny radiation that contains the Horned Screamer, one sandgrouse genus, two rail genera, an extinct passeriform genus, one genus of Palaeognathae, and last but not least, Helornis, a synonym of the extinct flamingo genus Elornis (however, this is just a spelling error and actually meant to be the Sungrebe (Heliornis fulica). 

I can break DP’s whole ‚article‘ down to one single sentence: 

Oddly, the tip of the premaxilla is slightly hooked on one side, not hooked on the other (Fig.1).

This citation says so much more about DP than anything anyone could write about him. Fossils can be slightly deformed or even be completely squished; DP, however, apparently sees this as their original state, so of course this bird must have had a beak with a tip slightly hooked only on one side … makes totally sense.

***

In the comment section there is also a comment clearly coming from a spam bot – of course DP is commenting also on this comment, just as he always does ….

*********************

References:

[1] Daniel J. Field; Juan Benito; Albert Chen; John W. M. Jagt; Daniel T. Ksepka: Late Cretaceous neornithine from Europe illuminates the origins of crown birds. Nature 579: 397–401. 2020

*********************

edited: 04.01.2021 

ZPALWr. A/4003

Ich habe hier ja schon mehrfach über oligozäne Vögel mit offenbar brüchigen Gliedmaßen gesprochen ….

Dieser hier ist ein winziges Fossil, bestehend aus einer Platte und deren Gegenplatte (Positivplatte und Negativplatte?), und besteht aus einem einzelnen Fuß, einem ca. 3,6 cm langen, rechten Fuß, an dem obendrein auch nur der erste und der zweite Zeh erhalten geblieben sind.

Dieser Teilfuß wurde mit diversen anderen Vogelformen verglichen und weist die größten Übereinstimmungen mit den Taubenvögeln (Columbiformes) auf, so dass es sich hierbei eventuell tatsächlich um den Fuß einer fossilen Taube handeln könnte – es wäre dies dann die älteste bislang bekannte Taubenform. Die ältesten bis dahin bekannten Taubenfossilien stammen aus dem Miozän bzw. der Grenze zwischen dem Oberoligozän und dem Untermiozän, sie erinnern durchweg an moderne Formen und lassen sich oft auch heutigen Linien innerhalb der Columbiformes zuordnen.

Wie dem auch sei, ZPALWr. A/4003 ist nur in Teilen erhalten, so dass eine genauere Bestimmung erst wirklich möglich ist wenn weitere Funde auftauchen sollten. [1] 

Zeichnung nach: ‚Zbigniew M. Bocheński; Teresa Tomek; Ewa Świdnicka: A columbid-like avian foot from the Oligocene of Poland. Acta Ornithologica 45(2): 233-236. 2010‘

Sollte es sich hierbei tatsächlich um eine echte Taubenform handeln, so lässt sich deren Größe auf etwa 25 cm schätzen.

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Zbigniew M. Bocheński; Teresa Tomek; Ewa Świdnicka: A columbid-like avian foot from the Oligocene of Poland. Acta Ornithologica 45(2): 233-236. 2010

*********************

bearbeitet: 26.12.2020

NT-LBR-014

Die Art wird von den Autoren der Gruppe der Tyrannida zugeordnet, einer Gruppe von suboscinen Passeriformes, die heute ausschließlich in Süd- und mit einigen wenigen Arten auch in Nordamerika verbreitet ist und weist hier die größten Gemeinsamkeiten mit den Schnurrvögeln (Pipridae) auf. [2]

Die Tyrannida haben sich jedoch, so wird vermutet, auf den amerikanischen Kontinenten entwickelt, und zwar so ziemlich ungestört seit wohl bereits ca. 64 Millionen Jahren, also zu Beginn des Paläozän. Demnach wäre die Zuordnung dieses oligozänen Vogels aus Europa zu den Tyrannida doch etwas fraglich. [1]

Vielleicht handelt es sich hierbei um eine komplett ausgestorbene Linie von Pipra-ähnlichen suboscinen Vögeln, die später in Europa durch oscine Arten verdrängt wurden.

Skizze; den Flügel muss ich noch etwas ausbessern, und was das Federhäubchen angeht, das man im Originalfossil sehen kann, hierbei mag es sich einfach um Federn handeln, die zufällig an dieser Stelle abgelagert wurden

Es ist sehr ungewöhnlich, dass NT-LBR-014, trotz seiner äußerst guten Erhaltung, von den Autoren keinen Namen erhalten hat.

*********************

Quelle: 

[1] John Reilly: The Ascent of Birds: how modern science is revealing their story. PELAGIC PUB LTD 2018
[2] Ségolène Riamon; Nicolas Tourment; Antoine Louchart: The earliest Tyrannida (Aves, Passeriformes), from the Oligocene of France. Scientific Reports 10(9776): 1-14. 2020

*********************

bearbeitet: 25.12.2020

Fossil record of the Yanornithiformes

Hongshanornithidae (?)

Archaeornithura meemannae Wang et al.

Hongshanornis longicresta Zhou & Zhang

Longicrusavis houi O’Connor et al.

Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis Li et al.

Tianyuornis cheni Zheng et al.

Songlingornithidae

Piscivoravis lii Zhou et al.

Songlingornis linghensis Hou

Yixianornis grabaui Zhou & Zhang

Yanornithidae

Abitusavis lii Wang, Li, Liu & Zhou [1]

Similiyanornis brevipectus Wang, Li, Liu & Zhou [1]

Yanornis martini Zhou & Zhang

*********************

References:

[1] Min Wang; Zhiheng Li; Quingguo Liu; Zhonghe Zhou: Two early Early Cretaceous ornithuromorph birds provide insights into the taxonomy and divergence of Yanornithidae (Aves: Ornithothoraces). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 18: 1805-1827. 2020

*********************

edited: 20.12.2020

Fossil records of the Bucerotiformes

Bucerotidae

Bucorvus brailloni (Brunet)

Euroceros bulgaricus
 Bojev & Kovačev

cf. Tockus sp. ‚Napak, Uganda‘ [1]

Laurillardiidae (?)

Laurillardia longirostris Milne-Edwards
Laurillardia munieri Flot
Laurillardia smoleni Bochenski, Mayr, Tomek, Wertz, Bienkowska-Wasiluk & Manegold

Messelirrisoridae

Messelirrisor grandis Mayr
Messelirrisor halcyrostris Mayr
Messelirrisor grandis Mayr

Phoeniculidae

Phirriculus pinicola Mlíkovský & Göhlich

Upupidae

Upupa phoeniculides Jánossy

*********************

References:

[1] Ségolène Riamon; Martin Pickford; Brigitte Senut; Antoine Louchart: Bucerootidae from the early Miocene of Napak, Uganda (East Africa): The earliest hornbill with modern-type beak. Ibis 04 December 2020

**********************

edited: 11.12.2020

Fossil record of the Strigiformes

Family incertae sedis

Primoptynx poliotauros Mayr, Gingerich & Smith [5]

Heterostrigidae

Heterostrix tatsinensis Kurochkin & Dyke

Ogygoptyngidae

Ogygoptynx wetmorei Rich & Bohaska

Palaeoglaucidae

Palaeoglaux artophoron Peters
Palaeoglaux perrierensis Mourer-Chauviré

Protostrigidae

Eostrix gulottai Mayr
Eostrix martinellii Wetmore
Eostrix mimica (Wetmore)
Eostrix tsaganica Kurochkin & Dyke
“Eostrix” vincenti Harrison

Minerva antiqua (Shufeldt)
Minerva californiensis (Howard)
Minerva leptosteus (Marsh)
Minerva lydekkeri Shufeldt
Minerva saurodosis Wetmore

Oligostrix rupeliensis Fischer

Sophiornithidae

Berruornis halbedeli Mayr
Berruornis orbisantiqui Mourer-Chauviré

Palaeobyas cracrafti Mourer-Chauviré

Palaeotyto cadurcensis Mouer-Chauviré

Sophiornis quercynus Mourer-Chauviré

Strigidae

Aegolius funereus (L.)

Alasio collongensis (Ballmann)

Asio brevipes Ford & Murray
Asio ecuadoriensis Lo Coco, Agnolín & Carrión [2]
“Asio” henrici Milne-Edwards
Asio longaevus (Umanskaya)
Asio priscus Howard

Athene angelis Mourer-Chauviré
Athene cretensis Weesie
Athene cunicularia ssp. intermedia Feduccia
Athene megalopeza (Ford)
Athene noctua ssp. lunellensis Mourer-Chauviré
Athene noctua ssp. veta Jánossy
Athene trinacriae Pavia & Mourer-Chauviré
Athene vallgornerensis Guerra, Bover & Alcover [1]

Bubo binagadensis Burchak-Abramovich
Bubo bubo ssp. davidi Mourer-Chauviré
Bubo (?) florianae Kretzoi
Bubo ibericus Meijer, Pavia, Madurell-Malapeira & Alba
Bubo leakeyae Brodkorb & Mourer-Chauviré
Bubo lignitum Giebel
Bubo osvaldoi Arrendondo & Olson
Bubo perpasta Ballmann
Bubo scandiacus ssp. gallicus (Mourer-Chauviré)
Bubo sp. ‘Soave Cava Sud, Italy’
Bubo zeylonensis ssp. lamarmorae Mlíkovský

Glaucidium explorator Emslie
Glaucidium ireneae Pavia [3]

Intulula brevis (Ballmann)
Intulula tinnipara Mlíkovský

Mioglaux debellatrix Mlíkovský
Mioglaux poirrieri (Milne-Edwards)

Ornimegalonyx ewingi Suárez [4]
Ornimegalonyx gigas Arredondo

Otus guildayi Brodkorb & Mourer-Chauviré
Otus wintershofensis (Ballmann)

Pulsatrix arredondoi Brodkorb

Strix brea Howard
“Strix” brevis Ballmann
Strix collongensis Ballman
Strix dakota A. H. Miller
Strix edwardsi (Ennouchi)
Strix intermedia Jánossy
Strix sp. ‘Ladds, USA’

Surnia capeki Jánossy
Surnia robusta Jánossy

Tytonidae

Basityto rummeli Mlíkovský

Miotyto montispetrosi Göhlich & Ballmann

Necrobyas arvernensis (Milne-Edwards)
Necrobyas harpax Milne-Edwards

Nocturnavis incerta (Milne-Edwards)

Prosybris antiqua (Milne-Edwards)
Prosybris media (Mourer-Chauviré)

Selenornis henrici (Milne-Edwards)

Tyto balearica (Mourer-Chauviré)
Tyto balearica ssp. cyrneichnusae Louchart
Tyto campiterrae Jánossy
Tyto gigantea Ballmann
Tyto jinniushanensis Hou
Tyto maniola Súarez & Olson [6]
Tyto mourerchauvireae Pavia
Tyto robusta Ballmann
Tyto sanctialbani (Lydekker)

*********************

References:

[1] Carmen Guerra; Pere Bover; Josep Antoni Alcover: A new species of extinct little owl from the Pleistocene of Mallorca (Balearic Islands). Journal of Ornithology 153(2): 347-354. 2012
[2] Gastón E. Lo Coco; Federico L. Agnolín; José Luis Román Carrión: Late Pleistocene owls (Aves, Strigiformes) from Ecuador, with the description of a new species. Journal of Ornithology 161: 713-721. 2020
[3] Marco Pavia: Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Cradle of Humankind during the Plio-Pleistocene transition, inferred from the analysis of fossil birds from Member 2 of the hominin-bearing site of Kromdraai (Gauteng, South Africa)  Quaternary Science Reviews. 248: Article 106532. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2020.106532. 2020
[4] William Suárez: Remarks on extinct giant owls (Strigidae) from Cuba, with description of a new species of Ornimegalonyx Arrendondo. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 140(4): 387-392. 2020
[5] Gerald Mayr; Philip D. Gingerich; Thierry Smith: Skeleton of a new owl from the early Eocene of North America (Aves, Strigiformes) with an accipitrid-like foot morphology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. doi: 10.1080/ 02724634.2020.1769116. 2020
[6] William Súarez; Storrs L. Olson: Systematics and distribution of the living and fossil small barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae). Zootaxa 4830(3): 544-564. 2020

*********************

edited: 11.12.2020

The Birds of Paradise

Clifford B. Frith; Bruce M. Beehler: The Birds of Paradise. Oxford University Press 1998

*********************

Dem Buch fehlt leider der Einband, da ich es gebraucht gekauft habe, es stammt aus der Bibliothek der University of Nottingham.

Das Buch gehört zu der ‚Bird Families of the World‘-Serie, die etliche Monografien umfasst, in diesem Fall eine die sich mit der Familie der Paradiesvögel befasst; es ist das bis dahin umfassendste Werk über diese interessante Vogelfamilie und fasst hier auch die Furchenvögel (Cnemophilidae) und den Lappenhonigfresser aus der Familie der Honigfresser (Meliphagidae) mit ein, die damals noch als Paradiesvögel galten. 

Besonders interessant finde ich persönlich die Abbildungen aller bekannten Hybridformen, die hier erstmalig in einer derartig hohen Qualität dargestellt werden, einige tatsächlich überhaupt zum allerersten mal.

Die Abbildungen, und zwar die Farbtafeln wie auch die Schwarzweißzeichnungen, stammen von William T. Cooper und sind durchweg wunderschön und sehr genau.

Das Buch kann nur empfohlen werden, ist allerdings offenbar ‚out of print‘.

*********************

bearbeitet: 28.11.2020

Skizze – Sichelschnabel-Gegenvogel (Falcatakely forsterae)

… bislang ist ausschließlich der Schädel dieses eigenartigen Vogels bekannt, der aber ziemlich wahrscheinlich überhaupt kein Vogel sondern etwas vollkommen anderes war [1][2][3]

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Andrea Cau: Falcatakely: eterodossia e pluralismo nell’Anno di Oculudentavis. Theropoda. 27 Novembre 2020 
[2] Mickey Mortimer: Is Falcatakely a bird? The Theropod Database Blog. November 28, 2020
[3] Patrick O’Connor; Alan H. Turner; Joseph R. Groenke; Ryan N. Felice; Raymond R. Rogers; David W. Krause; Lydia J. Rahantarisoa: Late Cretacous bird from Madagascar reveals unique development of beaks. Nature. 2020 Nov 25. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2945-x.

*********************

bearbeitet: 28.11.2020

Fossil record of the Psittaciformes

Cacatuidae

Cacatua sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Halcyornithidae

Cyrilavis colburnorum Ksepka et al.
Cyrilavis olsoni Feduccia & Martin

Halcyornis toliapicus König

Pseudasturides macrocephalus (Mayr)

Pulchrapollia gracilis (Dyke & Cooper)

Serudaptus pohli Mayr

Messelasturidae

Messelastur gratulator Peters

Tynskya eocaena Mayr

Nestoridae

Heracles inexpectatus Worthy, Hand, Archer, Scofield & De Pietri

Nelepsittacus daphneleeae Worthy et al.
Nelepsittacus donmertoni Worthy et al.
Nelepsittacus minimus Worthy et al.
Nelepsittacus (?) sp. ‘Croc Site Layer, New Zealand’

Psittacidae

Agapornis atlanticus Mourer-Chauviré
Agapornis attenboroughi
 Manegold
Agapornis sp.
 ‘Kromdraai B, South Africa’
Agapornis sp. ‘Plovers Lake, South Africa’

Aratinga roosevelti Spillman

Archaeopsittacus verreauxi Milne-Edwards

Bavaripsitta ballmanni Mayr & Göhlich

Conuropsis fratercula Wetmore

Khwenena leopoldinae Manegold

Melopsittacus undulatus (ssp. ‘Pliocene’ ?)

Mogontiacopsitta miocaena Mayr

Namapsitta praeruptorum Mourer-Chauviré et al.

Nandayus vorohuensis Tonni & Noriega

Psittacidae gen. & sp. ‘Baikal Lake, Russia’

Xenopsitta feifari Mlíkovsky

Quercypsittidae

Quercypsitta ivani Mourer-Chauviré
Quercypsitta sp. ‘Walton-on-the-Naze, Great Britain’
Quercypsitta sudrei Mourer-Chauviré

Vastanavidae (?)

Vastanavis cambayensis Mayr et al.
Vastanavis eocaena Mayr et al.

***

The families Halcyornithidae, Messelasturidae, and Vastanavidae possibly do not belong here.

*********************

edited: 23.11.2020

Atlantisia – eine Gattung, die es nie gab

Die Gattung Atlantisia wurde ursprünglich für drei Arten von flugunfähigen Arten verwendet, die auf einigen Inseln im Atlantischen Ozean endemisch verbreitet sind bzw. waren; eine davon ist der kleinste noch lebende flugunfähige Vogel, während die beiden anderen Arten leider ausgerottet wurden.

1. Atlantisia podarces (Wetmore), das ausgestorbene Saint Helena-Sumpfhuhn, ist offenbar tatsächlich am nächsten mit der Gattung Porphyrio verwandt und sollte daher besser seinen originalen Namen tragen – Aphanocrex podarces Wetmore.

2. Atlantisia rogersi Lowe, die Atlantisralle (siehe Foto), die auf dem winzigen Inaccessible Island in der Inselgruppe Tristan da Cunha lebt, ist, wie man anhand von DNA-Untersuchungen weiß, ein Mitglied der Gattung Laterallus und heißt nun Laterallus rogersi (Lowe).  

3. Atlantisia elpenor Olson, die ausgestorbene Ascencion-Ralle vom entlegenen Ascencion Island, stammt wohl vom selben Vorfahren ab wie die Atlantisralle und sollte daher nun Laterallus elpenor (Olson) heißen. [1]

***

Auch wenn der Gattungsname Atlantisia nun obsolet ist, ändert das nichts an der Tatsache, dass die ehemaligen Vertreter dieser Gattung zu den interessantesten und mysteriösesten Vogelarten der Welt gehören, über die bis heute fast nichts bekannt ist. 

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Marn Stervander; Peter G. Ryan; Marm Melo; Bengt Hansson: The origin of the world’s smallest flightless bird, the Inaccessible Island Rail Atlantisia rogersi (Aves: Rallidae)

*********************

Atlantisralle (Laterallus rogersi (Lowe))

Foto: Brian Gratwicke

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

*********************

bearbeitet: 22.11.2020

The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand

T. H. Worthy: The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press 2002

*********************

Es wird mal wieder Zeit für eine Buchvorstellung, ich komme sonst nicht mehr hinterher.

The Lost World of the Moa – die verlorene Welt der Moa(s) ist ein wirklich umfassendes (718 Seiten) Werk, dass sich mit der Tierwelt Neuseelands beschäftigt, genauer gesagt mit der des prähistorischen Neuseelands, aus einer Zeit bevor die ersten Menschen ihre Füße auf neuseeländischen Boden setzten.

Hierbei werden nicht etwa nur alle Arten der Moa(s) vorgestellt und quasi alles zusammengefasst, was irgendetwas mit ihnen zu tun hat sondern auch sämtliche anderen Vogelarten, aber auch Reptilien- und Amphibienarten dieser großen Inselgruppe; die gesamte neuseeländische Faunenregion wird abgedeckt – also die neuseeländischen Hauptinseln sowie die subantarktischen Inseln aber eben auch Macquarie Island und die Norfolk-Inseln, die politisch zu Australien gehören, faunistisch aber eindeutig zu Neuseeland.

Es ist erschreckend, wie viele Arten innerhalb der kurzen Zeit der Besiedlung durch Menschen komplett verschwunden sind; aber es ist auch sehr interessant wie viel wir trotzdem auch heute noch über sie erfahren können.

***

Man darf nicht vergessen, dass dieses Buch heute schon wieder fast 20 Jahre alt ist und somit etliche neue Erkenntnisse hinzu gekommen sind und das selbe Buch, würde man es heute schreiben, wohl doppelt so dick ausfallen würde.

Ich kann dieses Buch jedem empfehlen, der an Der Fauna Neuseelands oder an Paläontologie interessiert ist.

*********************

bearbeitet: 21.11.2020

Moa-Feder

Dieses Federchen stammt von einem Elefantenfußmoa (Pachyornis elephantopus (Owen)), der auf der Südinsel Neuseelands vorkam und vor etwa 600 bis 500 Jahren durch Bejagung und Lebensraumzerstörung ausgerottet wurde.

Rekonstruktion einer ca. 500 Jahre alten, subfossilen Feder

Die Feder ist ca. 3,5 cm lang und nicht vollständig, die Originalfarben sind jedoch bis heute erhalten. [1]

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Nicolas J. Rawlence; Jamie R. Wood; Kyle N. Armstrong; Alan Cooper: DNA content and distribution in ancient feathers and potential to reconstruct the plumage of extinct avian taxa. Proceedings of the Royal Society 276: 3395-3402. 2009

*********************

bearbeitet: 21.11.2020

Fossile Gastornithiformes

Gastornithidae

Gastornis geiselensis Fischer
Gastornis gigantaeus (Cope)
Gastornis laurenti Mourer-Chauviré & Bourdon [1]
Gastornis parisiensis Hébert
Gastornis russelli Martin
Gastornis sarasini (Schaub)
Gastornis xichuanensis (Hou)

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Cécile Mourer-Chauviré; Estelle Bourdon: Description of a new species of gastornis (Aves, Gastornithiformes) from the early Eocene of La Borie, southwestern France. Geobios (2020), doi: https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.geobios.2020.10.002 

*********************

bearbeitet: 19.11.2020

Urvogel-Feder

Diese (nicht mehr ganz so) älteste bekannte Feder stammt mit ziemlich großer Wahrscheinlichkeit von dem weltberühmten Urvogel (Archaeopteryx lithographica von Meyer), der tatsächlich aber gar kein wirklicher Vogel im eigentlichen Sinn des Wortes war – aber dies genauer zu erklären überlasse ich Berufs-Paläoornithologen.

Rekonstruktion einer ca. 150 Millionen Jahre alten Feder

Die Feder, bislang erstaunlicherweise einzigartig geblieben, ist etwa 6 cm lang, sie war ziemlich wahrscheinlich sehr dunkel grau bis schwarz gefärbt und stammte wohl aus der Region der Flügeldecken. [1]

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Ryan M. Carney; Helmut Tischlinger; Matthew D. Shawkey: Evidence corrobates identity of isolated fossil feather as a wing covert of Archaeopteryx. Scientific Reports 10: 15593. 2020

*********************

bearbeitet: 15.11.2020

Neu beschrieben – Jos-Rotscheitellerche

Jos-Rotscheitellerche (Calandrella cinerea ssp. rufipecta)

Die Familie der Lerchen ist vor allem in Afrika und Asien verbreitet, einige Arten leben auch in Europa; derzeit werden etwa 90 Arten unterschieden – es dürften tatsächlich aber viele mehr sein ….

***

Die Jos-Rotscheitellerche kommt ausschließlich auf dem Jos-Plateu in Zentral-Nigeria vor; sie wird derzeit als Unterart der Rotscheitellerche (Calandrella cinerea (Gmelin)) betrachtet, einer Art, die vor allem im südlichen Afrika verbreitet ist.

Die neu beschriebene Form ist schon sehr lange bekannt, offenbar schon seit 1958; sie wurde letztmalig im Jahr 1994 beobachtet und galt als ausgestorben bis sie schließlich im Jahr 2004 wiederentdeckt wurde – beschrieben wurde sie erst jetzt.

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Martin Stervander; Bengt Hansson; Urban Olsson; Mark F. Hulme; Ulf Ottosson; Per Alström: Molecular species deliminations of larks (Aves: Alaudidae), and integrative taxonomy of the genus Calandrella, with the description of a range-restricted African relic taxon. Diversity 12(428): 1-28. 2020 

*********************

Fotos aus: ‚Martin Stervander; Bengt Hansson; Urban Olsson; Mark F. Hulme; Ulf Ottosson; Per Alström: Molecular species deliminations of larks (Aves: Alaudidae), and integrative taxonomy of the genus Calandrella, with the description of a range-restricted African relic taxon. Diversity 12(428): 1-28. 2020‘

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

Ich würde mich nicht im Geringsten wundern, wenn die Jos-Rotscheitellerche irgendwann in Zukunft Artstatus erhalten würde. 

*********************

bearbeitet: 15.11.2020

Neu beschrieben – Henderson Island-Strandläufer

Henderson Island-Strandläufer (Prosobonia sauli De Pietri et al.)

Das bisher eher bescheidene Jahr 2020 ist erst kurz vor seinem Ende wieder etwas farbenfroher geworden … der orangefarbene Schrecken ist dabei seine Sachen zu packen und zu verschwinden … und nun kommt auch noch eine gute Nachricht für mich persönlich denn sie betrifft eine meiner absoluten Lieblings-Vogelgattungen: der Henderson Island-Strandläufer hat nun ganz offiziell einen wissenschaftlichen Namen erhalten, wenn auch nicht denn allerschönsten …. [2]

Die Art, die bisher nur unter dem Namen Prosobonia sp. ‚Henderson Island‘ bekannt war, wurde bereits im Jahr 1994 erstmals erwähnt, ihre Überreste müssen aber schon einige Zeit zuvor gefunden worden sein. [1]

Jetzt, ’nur‘ 26 Jahre später ist die Art endlich beschrieben und benannt worden; ich habe mir die Beschreibung noch nicht vollständig durchgelesen, aber das werde ich morgen in aller Ruhe tun.   🙂

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] Graham M. Wragg; Marshall I. Weisler: Extinctions and new records of birds from Henderson Island. Notornis 41: 61-70. 1994
[2] Vanesa L. De Pietri; Trevor H. Worthy; R. Paul Scofield; Theresa L. Cole; Jamie R. Wood; Kieren J. Mitchell; Alice Cibois; Justin J. F. J. Jansen; Alan J. Cooper; Shaohong Feng; Wanjun Chen; Alan J. D. Tennyson; Graham M. Wragg: A new extinct species of Polynesian sandpiper (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae: Prosobonia) from Henderson Island, Pitcairn Island Group, and the phylogenetic relationships of Prosobonia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-26. 2020

*********************

bearbeitet: 08.11.2020

Neu beschrieben – Südgeorgien-Eselspinguin

Südgeorgien-Eselspinguin (Pygoscelis poncetii Tayler, Bonfitto, Clucas, Reddy & Younger)

Der Eselspinguin ist einer der wenigen Pinguine, die wirklich in der Antarktis leben, zumindest an den Küsten der Antarktischen Halbinsel; darüber hinaus gibt es noch einige weitere Populationen auf diversen subantarktischen Inselgruppen z.B. auf den Crozetinseln, auf den Falkland-Inseln, auf Heard und den McDonaldinseln, den Kerguelen oder auf Macquarie Island, auf den Südlichen Orkneyinseln, den Prinz-Edward-Inseln, Südgeorgien und den Südlichen Sandwichinseln.

Durch neue Studien konnte nun nachgewiesen werden, dass sich diese Populationen äußerlich zwar so gut wie gar nicht, genetisch jedoch teils sehr stark unterscheiden; einige dieser Populationen wurden aufgrund von Größenunterschieden schon zuvor als Unterarten beschrieben, sie haben nun Artstatus erhalten; eine wurde jedoch komplett neu beschrieben – die Population von Südgeorgien.

Photo: Liam Quinn

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

Das Foto zeigt einen Vogel der neu beschriebenen Art am Strand von Südgeorgien.

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] Joshua Tyler; Matthew T. Bonfitto; Gemma V. Clucas; Sushma Reddy; Jane L. Younger: Morphometric and genetic evidence for four species of gentoo penguin. Ecology and Evolution 1-11. 2020

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bearbeitet: 06.11.2020

The 902 birds of Polynesia

… a list (in alphabetical order) of the 902 species and subspecies of breeding birds within the Polynesian triangle, including Fiji, Macquarie Island, the Norfolk Islands as well as Motu Motiro Hiva (Sala y Gómez).

Completely extinct forms are written in bold.

***

Acanthisittidae (endemic family)

Acanthisitta chloris ssp. chloris
Acanthisitta chloris ssp. granti

Dendroscansor decurvirostris

Xenicus gilviventris
Xenicus longipes ssp. longipes
Xenicus longipes ssp. stokesii
Xenicus longipes ssp. variabilis
Xenicus lyalli
Xenicus yaldwyni ssp. jagmi
Xenicus yaldwyni ssp. yaldwyni

Acanthizidae

Gerygone albofrontata
Gerygone igata
Gerygone modesta

Accipitridae

Accipiter fasciatus ssp. ?
Accipiter rufitorques

Aquila moorei

Buteo solitarius

Circus approximans
Circus dossenus
Circus teauteensis

Haliaeetus sp. ‘Hawaiian Islands’

Acrocephalidae

Acrocephalus aequinoctialis ssp. aequinoctialis
Acrocephalus aequinoctialis ssp. ‘pistor’
Acrocephalus aequinoctialis ssp. pistor ‘Tabuaeran’
Acrocephalus astrolabii
Acrocephalus atyphus ssp. atyphus
Acrocephalus atyphus ssp. niauensis
Acrocephalus atyphus ssp. palmarum
Acrocephalus caffer
Acrocephalus eremus
Acrocephalus familiaris ssp. familiaris
Acrocephalus familiaris ssp. kingi
Acrocephalus kerearako ssp. kaoko
Acrocephalus kerearako ssp. kerearako
Acrocephalus longirostris
Acrocephalus mendanae ssp. consobrinus
Acrocephalus mendanae ssp. dido
Acrocephalus mendanae ssp. fatuhivae
Acrocephalus mendanae ssp. mendanae
Acrocephalus musae ssp. garetti
Acrocephalus musae ssp. musae
Acrocephalus percernis ssp. aquilonis
Acrocephalus percernis ssp. idae
Acrocephalus percernis ssp. percenis
Acrocephalus percernis ssp. prostremus
Acrocephalus rimatarae
Acrocephalus sp. ‘Raivavae’

Acrocephalus taiti
Acrocephalus vaughani

Aegothelidae

Aegotheles novaezealandiae

Alcedinidae

Todiramphus chloris ssp. eximia
Todiramphus chloris ssp. marina
Todiramphus chloris ssp. regina
Todiramphus chloris ssp. sacra
Todiramphus chloris ssp. vitiensis
Todiramphus gambieri
Todiramphus gertrudae
Todiramphus godeffroyi
Todiramphus pealei ssp. manuae
Todiramphus pealei ssp. pealei

Todiramphus recurvirostris
Todiramphus ruficollaris
Todiramphus sanctus ssp. norfolkiensis
Todiramphus sanctus ssp. vagans
Todiramphus sp. ‘Rapa’
Todiramphus sp. ‘Rarotonga’
Todiramphus tutus ssp. atiu
Todiramphus tutus ssp. mauke
Todiramphus tutus ssp. tutus
Todiramphus venerates
Todiramphus youngi

Anatidae

Anas acuta (ssp. modesta) [C.N.1943]
Anas aucklandica

Anas chathamica
Anas chlorotis ssp.’Chatham Islands’
Anas chlorotis ssp. chlorotis
Anas gracilis
Anas laysanensis
Anas nesiotis
Anas rhynchotis ssp. variegata
Anas sp. ‘Macquarie’
Anas sp. ‘Viti Levu’
Anas superciliosa
Anas wyvilliana

Anatidae gen. & sp. ‘Large Hawai’i Goose’
Anatidae gen. & sp. ‘Supernumerary O’ahu Goose’

Aythya australis
Aythya novaeseelandiae

Biziura delautouri

Branta aff. hylobadistes ‘Kaua’i’
Branta aff. hylobadistes ‘O’ahu’
Branta hylobadistes
Branta rhuax
Branta sandvicensis

Chelychelynechen quassus

Chenonetta finschi
Chenonetta jubata [W.A.C.2016]

Cnemiornis calcitrans
Cnemiornis gracilis

Cygnus atratus ssp. atratus (?)
Cygnus sumnerensis ssp. chathamensis
Cygnus sumnerensis ssp. sumnerensis

Dendrocygna arcuata ssp. pygmaea
Dendrocygna sp. ‘Aitutaki’

Hymenolaimus malacorhynchus

Malacorhynchus scarletti

Mareca strepera ssp. couesi

Mergus australis
Mergus milleneri
Mergus sp. ‘New Zealand’

Oxyura vatetsi

Ptaiochen pau

Tadorna sp. ‘Chatham Islands’
Tadorna sp. ‘Kaua’i’
Tadorna tadornoides
Tadorna variegata

Talpanas lippa

Thambetochen chaulidous
Thambetochen xanion

Apodidae

Aerodramus leucophaeus
Aerodramus manuoi
Aerodramus ocistus ssp. gilliardi
Aerodramus ocistus ssp. ocistus
Aerodramus sawtelli
Aerodramus spodiopygius ssp. assimilis
Aerodramus spodiopygius ssp. spodiopygius
Aerodramus spodiopygius ssp. townsendi

Apterygidae (endemic family)

Apteryx australis ssp. ‘Haast’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘Mt. Cookson’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘Mt. Somers’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘North Fiordland’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘South Fiordland’
Apteryx australis ssp. ‘Stewart Island’
Apteryx haastii
Apteryx mantelli ssp. ‘Coromandel’
Apteryx mantelli ssp. ‘Eastern’
Apteryx mantelli ssp. ‘North Island’
Apteryx mantelli ssp. ‘Taranaki’
Apteryx owenii ssp. ‘North Island 1’
Apteryx owenii ssp. ‘North Island 2’

Apteryx owenii ssp. ‘South Island’
Apteryx rowi ssp. ‘North Island’
Apteryx rowi ssp. ‘Okarito’
Apteryx rowi ssp. ‘Tasman’

Apteryx sp. ‘South Island’

Aptornithidae (endemic family)

Aptornis defossor
Aptornis otodiformis

Ardeidae

Ardea modesta
Ardea novaehollandiae

Ardeidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Botaurus poiciloptilus

Butorides striata ssp. diminuta
Butorides striata ssp. patruelis

Egretta sacra

Ixobrychus novaezelandiae

Nycticorax caledonicus ssp. australasiae
Nycticorax caledonicus ssp. ‘Fiji’
Nycticorax kalavikai
Nycticorax nycticorax ssp. hoactli
Nycticorax sp. ”Eua’
Nycticorax sp. ‘Lifuka’
Nycticorax sp. ‘Mangaia’

Artamidae

Artamus mentalis
Artamus personatus

Callaeidae (endemic family)

Callaeas cinereus
Callaeas wilsoni

Heteralocha acutirostris

Philesturnus carunculatus
Philesturnus rufusater

Campephagidae

Lalage leucopyga ssp. leucopyga
Lalage maculosa ssp. futunae
Lalage maculosa ssp. keppeli
Lalage maculosa ssp. maculosa
Lalage maculosa ssp. mixta
Lalage maculosa ssp. nesophila
Lalage maculosa ssp. pumila
Lalage maculosa ssp. rotumae
Lalage maculosa ssp. tabuensis
Lalage maculosa ssp. vauana
Lalage maculosa ssp. whitmeei
Lalage maculosa ssp. woodi
Lalage sharpei ssp. sharpei
Lalage sharpei ssp. tenebrosa
Lalage sp. ‘Tonga’

Cettiidae

Horornis ruficapilla ssp. badiceps
Horornis ruficapilla ssp. castaneoptera
Horornis ruficapilla ssp. funebris
Horornis ruficapilla ssp. ruficapilla
Horornis sp.”Eua’

Charadriidae

Anarhynchus frontalis

Charadrius aquilonius
Charadrius bicinctus ssp. bicinctus
Charadrius bicinctus ssp. exilis
Charadrius melanops
Charadrius obscurus
Charadrius ruficapillus

Haematopus chathamensis
Haematopus finschi
Haematopus unicolor

Himatopus himatopus ssp. leucocephalus
Himatopus knudseni
Himatopus novaezelandiae

Thinornis novaeseelandiae

Vanellus novaehollandiae

Columbidae

Bountyphaps obsoletus

Caloenas canacorum
Caloenas maculata (?) [P.R.2020]
Caloenas sp. ‘Tonga’ [S.H.2019]

Chalcophaps indica ssp. rogersi

Columba vitiensis ssp. castaneiceps
Columba vitiensis ssp. ‘Tonga’
Columba vitiensis ssp. vitiensis

Columbidae gen. & sp. ‘Kamaka’

Didunculus placopedetes
Didunculus strigirostris

Ducula aurorae
Ducula david
Ducula galeata
Ducula harrisoni
Ducula lakeba
Ducula latrans
Ducula pacifica
Ducula shutleri [S.H.2019]
Ducula sp. ‘Rapa’
Ducula sp. ‘Viti Levu’
Ducula tihonireasini 

Hemiphaga chathamensis
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae
Hemiphaga spadicea

Macropygia arevarevauupa
Macropygia heana

Natunaornis gigoura

Pampusana erythropterus [M.B.2016]
Pampusana leonpascoi [M.B.2016]
Pampusana norfolciensis
[M.B.2016]
Pampusana nui
[M.B.2016]
Pampusana rubescens [M.B.2016]
Pampusana sp. ‚Karoraina‘ [F.D.B.1840]
Pampusana sp. 1 ‘Rurutu’ [M.B.2016]
Pampusana sp. 2 ‘Rurutu’
[M.B.2016]
Pampusana sp. ‘Tubuai’
[M.B.20165]
Pampusana stairi ssp. stairi [M.B.2016]
Pampusana stairi ssp. vitiensis [M.B.2016]

Ptilinopus chalcurus
Ptilinopus chrysogaster
Ptilinopus coralensis
Ptilinopus dupetithouarsii ssp. dupetithouarsii
Ptilinopus dupetithouarsii ssp. viridior
Ptilinopus goodwinii ssp. ‘Aitutaki’
Ptilinopus goodwinii ssp. byronensis
Ptilinopus goodwinii ssp. goodwinii
Ptilinopus huttoni
Ptilinopus insularis
Ptilinopus layardi
Ptilinopus luteovirens
Ptilinopus mercierii ssp. mercierii
Ptilinopus mercierii ssp. tristramii
Ptilinopus perousii ssp. mariae
Ptilinopus perousii ssp. perousii
Ptilinopus porphyraceus ssp. fasciatus
Ptilinopus porphyraceus ssp. graeffei
Ptilinopus porphyraceus ssp. porphyraceus
Ptilinopus purpuratus ssp. frater
Ptilinopus purpuratus ssp. purpuratus
Ptilinopus rarotongensis
Ptilinopus sp. ‘Lakeba’
Ptilinopus sp. ‘Mangaia’
Ptilinopus sp. ‘Tubuai’
Ptilinopus victor ssp. aureus
Ptilinopus victor ssp. victor

Tongoenas burleyi [D.W.S.2020]

Corvidae

Corvus antipodum ssp. antipodum
Corvus antipodum ssp. pycrofti
Corvus hawaiiensis
Corvus impluviatus
Corvus moriorum
Corvus sp. ‘Hawai’i 1’
Corvus sp. ‘Hawai’i 2’
Corvus sp. ‘Maui’
Corvus viriosus

Cuculidae

Cacomantis flabelliformis ssp. ‘Tonga’
Cacomantis flabelliformis ssp. simus

Chrysococcyx lucidus

Urodynamis taitensis

Dinornithidae (endemic family)

Dinornis novaezealandiae
Dinornis robustus

Diomedeidae

Diomedea antipodensis ssp. antipodensis
Diomedea antipodensis ssp. gibsoni
Diomedea epomophora
Diomedea exulans
Diomedea sanfordi
Diomedea sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Phoebastria albatrus
Phoebastria immutabilis
Phoebastria nigripes

Phoebetria palpebrata

Thalassarche bulleri ssp. bulleri
Thalassarche bulleri ssp. platei
Thalassarche chrysostoma
Thalassarche eremita
Thalassarche impavida
Thalassarche melanophris
Thalassarche salvini
Thalassarche steadi

Emeidae (endemic family)

Anomalapteryx didiformis

Emeus crassus

Euryapteryx curtus
Euryapteryx geranoides

Pachyornis australis
Pachyornis elephantopus
Pachyornis mappini

Estrildidae

Erythrura cyaneovirens
Erythrura kleinschmidti
Erythrura pealii

Falconidae

Falco cenchroides
Falco novaeseelandiae
Falco peregrinus ssp. nesiotes

Fregatidae

Fregata ariel
Fregata minor ssp. palmerstoni

Fringillidae

Aidemedia chascax
Aidemedia lutetiae
Aidemedia zanclops

Chloridops kona
Chloridops regiskongi
Chloridops sp. ‘Kaua’i’
Chloridops sp. ‘Maui’
Chloridops wahi

Ciridops anna
Ciridops sp. ‘O’ahu’
Ciridops tenax

Drepanidinae gen. & sp. ‘Unassigned Maui Finch’

Drepanis coccinea
Drepanis funerea
Drepanis pacifica

Dysmorodrepanis munroi

Hemignathus affinis
Hemignathus ellisianus
Hemignathus flavus
Hemignathus hanapepe
Hemignathus kauaiensis
Hemignathus lanaiensis
Hemignathus lucidus
Hemignathus munroi
Hemignathus obscurus
Hemignathus sagittirostris
Hemignathus sp. ‘Hawai’i’
Hemignathus sp. ‘Hawai’i Nukupu’u’
Hemignathus sp. ‘Maui’
Hemignathus stejnegeri
Hemignathus upupirostris
Hemignathus virens ssp. virens
Hemignathus virens ssp. wilsoni
Hemignathus vorpalis

Himatione freethi
Himatione sanguinea
Himatione sp. cf. sanguinea

Loxioides bailleui
Loxioides kikuchi
Loxioides sp. ‘Hawai’i’

Loxops caeruleirostris
Loxops coccineus
Loxops ochraceus
Loxops wolstenholmei

Magumma parva

Manucerthia mana

Melamprosops phaeosoma

Oreomystis bairdi

Orthiospiza howarthi

Palmeria dolei

Paroreomyza flammea
Paroreomyza maculata
Paroreomyza montana ssp. montana
Paroreomyza montana ssp. newtoni
Pseudonestor xanthophrys

Psittirostra psittacea
Psittirostra sp. ‘O’ahu’

aff. Psittirostra sp. ‚Additional Kauai Finch‘ [S.L.O. 1991]

Rhodacanthis flaviceps
Rhodacanthis forfex
Rhodacanthis litotes
Rhodacanthis palmeri
Rhodacanthis sp. ‚O’ahu‘ [H.F.J. 2005]

Telespiza aff. ypsilon ‘Maui’
Telespiza cantans
Telespiza persecutrix
Telespiza sp. ‘Hawai’i’
Telespiza ultima
Telespiza ypsilon

Vangulifer mirandus
Vangulifer neophasis

Xestospiza conica
Xestospiza fastigialis

Hirundinidae

Hirundo javanica ssp. subfusca
Hirundo neoxena

Hirundo sp. ‘Henderson Island’
Hirundo tahitica

Petrochelidon ariel

Hydrobatidae

Oceanodroma castro ssp. cryptoleucura
Oceanodroma tristrami

Lamproliidae

Lamprolia klinesmithi
Lamprolia victoriae

Laridae

Catharacta lonnbergii

Larus bulleri
Larus dominicanus
Larus scopulinus
Larus sp. ‘Kaua’i’
Larus utunui

Locustellidae

Megalurulus rufa ssp. cluniei
Megalurulus rufa ssp. rufa

Poodytes caudatus
Poodytes punctatus ssp. punctatus
Poodytes punctatus ssp. stewartiana
Poodytes punctatus ssp. vealeae
Poodytes punctatus ssp. wilsoni
Poodytes rufescens

Megalapterygidae (endemic family)

Megalapteryx didinus

Megapodiidae

Megapodiidae gen. & sp. ‘Tongatapu’

Megapodius alimentum
Megapodius amissus
Megapodius molistructor
Megapodius pritchardii ssp. ‘Niue’
Megapodius pritchardii ssp. pritchardii 
Megapodius sp. ‘Lau Islands’ 
Megapodius sp. ‘Ofu’
Megapodius sp. ‘Raoul Island’ 
Megapodius sp. ‘small’

Meliphagidae

Anthornis melanocephala
Anthornis melanura ssp. melanura
Anthornis melanura ssp. obscura
Anthornis melanura ssp. oneho

Foulehaio carunculatus
Foulehaio procerior
Foulehaio taviunensis

Gymnomyza brunneirostris
Gymnomyza samoensis
Gymnomyza viridis 

Myzomela chermesina
Myzomela jugularis
Myzomela nigriventris
Myzomela sp. ‘Tonga’

Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae ssp. chathamensis
Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae ssp. novaeseelandiae

Xanthotis provocator

Mohoidae (endemic family)

Chaetoptila angustipluma
Chaetoptila sp. ‘Maui Nui’
Chaetoptila sp. ‘narrow-billed’
Chaetoptila sp. ‘O’ahu’

Moho apicalis
Moho bishop
Moho braccatus
Moho nobilis
Moho sp. ‘Maui’

Mohouidae (endemic family)

Mohoua albicilla
Mohoua novaeseelandiae
Mohoua ochrocephala

Monarchidae

Monarcha dimidiata
Monarcha fluxus
Monarcha fortunae
Monarcha gambieranus
Monarcha heinei
Monarcha ibidis
Monarcha iphis
Monarcha keppeli
Monarcha lessoni ssp. lessoni
Monarcha lessoni ssp. orientalis
Monarcha mendozae ssp. mendozae
Monarcha mendozae ssp. motanensis
Monarcha mirus
Monarcha niger
Monarcha nigrogularis
Monarcha nukuhivae
Monarcha pomareus
Monarcha powelli
Monarcha sandwichensis (incl. ssp. bryani and ssp. ridgwayi)
Monarcha sclateri
Monarcha versicolor
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. buensis
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. compressirostris
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. layardi
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. nesiotes
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. pontifex
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. vatuanus
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. vitiensis
Monarcha vitiensis ssp. wiglesworthi
Monarcha whitneyi

Myiagra albiventris
Myiagra azureocapilla
Myiagra castaneigularis ssp. castaneigularis
Myiagra castaneigularis ssp. whitney
Myiagra sp. ”Eua’
Myiagra vanikorensis ssp. dorsalis
Myiagra vanikorensis ssp. kandavensis
Myiagra vanikorensis ssp. rufiventris
Myiagra vanikorensis ssp. townsendi

Motacillidae

Anthus novaeseelandiae ssp. aucklandicus
Anthus novaeseelandiae ssp. chathamensis
Anthus novaeseelandiae ssp. novaeseelandia
Anthus novaeseelandiae ssp. steindachneri

Nestoridae (endemic family)

Nestor chathamensis
Nestor meridionalis ssp. meridionalis
Nestor meridionalis ssp. septentrionalis
Nestor notabilis
Nestor productus

Strigops habroptila

Notiomystidae (endemic family)

Notiomystis cincta

Oceanitidae

Fregetta grallaria ssp. ?
Fregetta grallaria ssp. grallaria
Fregetta maoriana
Fregetta sp. ‚Marquesas‘ ? [A.C.2015]
Fregetta titan
Fregetta tropica

Garrodia nereis

Nesofregetta fuliginosa

Pelagodroma marina ssp. albiclunis
Pelagodroma marina ssp. maoriana

Oriolidae

Turnagra capensis ssp. capensis
Turnagra capensis ssp. minor
Turnagra tanagra

Pachycephalidae

Pachycephala flavifrons
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. ambigua
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. aurantiiventris
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. bella
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. graeffei
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. koroana
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. optata
Pachycephala graeffei ssp. torquata
Pachycephala jacquinoti
Pachycephala pectoralis ssp. xanthoprocta
Pachycephala vitiensis ssp. kandavensis
Pachycephala vitiensis ssp. lauana
Pachycephala vitiensis ssp. vitiensis

Pandionidae

Pandion cristatus (ssp. ?)

Pelecanoididae

Pelecanoides urinatrix ssp. chathamensis
Pelecanoides urinatrix ssp. exsul
Pelecanoides urinatrix ssp. urinatrix
Pelecanoides whenuahouensis

Petroicidae

Petroica australis ssp. australis
Petroica australis ssp. rakiura
Petroica chathamensis
Petroica dannefaerdi
Petroica longipes
Petroica macrocephala
Petroica marrineri
Petroica multicolor ssp. multicolor
Petroica pusilla ssp. ‘Ha’apai Islands’
Petroica pusilla ssp. becki
Petroica pusilla ssp. kleinschmidti
Petroica pusilla ssp. pusilla
Petroica pusilla ssp. taveunensis
Petroica toitoi
Petroica traversi

Phaethontidae

Phaethon lepturus ssp. dorotheae
Phaethon rubricauda ssp. roseotinctus
Phaethon rubricauda ssp. rothschildi
Phaethon rubricauda ssp. rubricauda

Phalacrocoracidae

Leucocarbo campbelli
Leucocarbo carunculata
Leucocarbo chalconotus

Leucocarbo colensoi
Leucocarbo featherstoni
Leucocarbo onslowi
Leucocarbo punctata ssp. punctata
Leucocarbo punctata ssp. steadi
Leucocarbo purpurascens
Leucocarbo ranfurlyi
Leucocarbo septentrionalis
Leucocarbo stewarti
Leucocarbo sulcirostris
Leucocarbo varius

Microcarbo melanoleucos ssp. brevirostris
Microcarbo melanoleucos ssp. melanoleucos

Phalacrocorax carbo ssp. novaehollandiae

Phasianidae

Coturnix novaezelandiae

Podicipedidae

Podiceps cristatus ssp. australis

Podilymbus podiceps

Poliocephalus rufopectus

Tachybaptus novaehollandiae ssp. ‘Fiji’
Tachybaptus novaehollandiae ssp. novaehollandiae

Procellariidae

Bulweria bulwerii

Daption capense ssp. australe

Fulmarus glacialoides

Halobaena caerulea

Macronectes giganteus
Macronectes halli

Pachyptila crassirostris ssp.  crassirostris
Pachyptila crassirostris ssp. pyramidalis
Pachyptila desolata ssp. banksia
Pachyptila sp. ‘Rapa Nui’
Pachyptila turtur
Pachyptila vittata

Procellaria aequinoctialis
Procellaria cinerea
Procellaria parkinsoni
Procellaria sp. ‘Rapa Nui’
Procellaria westlandica

Procellariidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi
Pseudobulweria rostrata
Pseudobulweria sp. ‘Mangareva’

Pterodroma alba
Pterodroma atrata
Pterodroma axillaris
Pterodroma brevipes
Pterodroma caledonica
Pterodroma cervicalis
Pterodroma cookii
Pterodroma externa
Pterodroma gouldi
Pterodroma heraldica
Pterodroma hypoleuca
Pterodroma imberis
Pterodroma inexpectata
Pterodroma jugabilis
Pterodroma lessonii
Pterodroma magentae
Pterodroma mollis
Pterodroma neglecta
Pterodroma nigripennis
Pterodroma pycrofti
Pterodroma sandwichensis
Pterodroma solandri
Pterodroma sp. (aff. lessoni/macroptera) ‘Rapa Nui’
Pterodroma sp. ‘Henderson Island’
Pterodroma sp. ‘Mangareva’
Pterodroma sp. ‘Raivavae’
Pterodroma sp. (small) ‘Ua Huka’
Pterodroma ultima

Puffinus assimilis ssp. assimilis
Puffinus assimilis ssp. elegans
Puffinus assimilis ssp. haurakiensis
Puffinus assimilis ssp. kermadecensis
Puffinus bailloni ssp. dichrous
Puffinus bulleri
Puffinus carneipes
Puffinus cf. gavia ‘Mangaia’
Puffinus gavia
Puffinus griseus
Puffinus huttoni
Puffinus myrtae
Puffinus nativitatus
Puffinus newelli
Puffinus pacificus ssp. chlororhynchus
Puffinus pacificus ssp. pacificus
Puffinus sp. ”Eua’
Puffinus spelaeus
Puffinus tenuirostris

Psittacidae

Charmosyna amabilis
Charmosyna sp. ‚Samoa‘ [O.K.1830]
Charmosyna sp. ”Uta Vava’u’

Cyanoramphus auriceps
Cyanoramphus cooki
Cyanoramphus erythrotis
Cyanoramphus forbesi
Cyanoramphus hochstetteri
Cyanoramphus malherbi
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae ssp. chathamensis
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae ssp. cyanurus
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae ssp. novaezelandiae
Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Campbell Islands’
Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Rapa’
Cyanoramphus ulietanus
Cyanoramphus unicolor
Cyanoramphus zealandicus

Eclectus infectus

Phigys solitarius

Prosopeia personata
Prosopeia splendens
Prosopeia tabuensis ssp. atrogularis
Prosopeia tabuensis ssp. koroensis
Prosopeia tabuensis ssp. tabuensis
Prosopeia tabuensis ssp. taviunensis

Psittacidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Vini australis
Vini kuhlii
Vini peruviana
Vini sinotoi
Vini stepheni
Vini ultramarina
Vini vidivici

Rallidae

Amaurornis cinerea

Capellirallus karamu

Fulica alai
Fulica atra ssp. australis
Fulica chathamensis
Fulica prisca

Gallinula chloropus ssp. sandvicensis
Gallinula hodgenorum
Gallinula pacifica
Gallinula sp. ‘Viti Levu’

Gallirallus australis ssp. australis
Gallirallus australis ssp. greyi
Gallirallus dieffenbachii
Gallirallus epulare
Gallirallus gracilitibia
Gallirallus hawkinsi

Gallirallus huiatua
Gallirallus hypoleucus
Gallirallus macquariensis
Gallirallus modestus
Gallirallus pacificus
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. assimilis
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. ecaudatus
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. goodsoni
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. mellori
Gallirallus philippensis ssp. sethsmithi
Gallirallus poecilopterus
Gallirallus ripleyi
Gallirallus roletti
Gallirallus sp. ‘Aiwa Levu’

Gallirallus sp. E ‚Ha’apai, Tonga‘
Gallirallus sp. F ‚Ha’apai, Tonga‘
Gallirallus sp. ‘Ha’afeva’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Hiva Oa’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Lifuka’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Me’eti’a’

Gallirallus sp. ‘Norfolk Island’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Rapa’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Rurutu’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Tongatapu’
Gallirallus steadmani
Gallirallus storrsolsoni
Gallirallus vavauensis
Gallirallus vekamatolu

Lewinia muelleri

Porphyrio hochstetteri
Porphyrio mantelli
Porphyrio mcnabei
Porphyrio melanotus ssp. melanotus
Porphyrio melanotus ssp. samoensis
Porphyrio paepae
Porphyrio sp. ‘Mangaia’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Norfolk Island’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Ra’iatea’

Rallidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Vitirallus watlingi

Zapornia atra
Zapornia keplerorum
Zapornia menehune
Zapornia nigra
Zapornia palmeri
Zapornia pusilla ssp. affinis
Zapornia ralphorum
Zapornia rua
Zapornia sandwichensis ssp. millsi
Zapornia sandwichensis ssp. sandichensis
Zapornia severnsi
Zapornia sp. ‘Aiwa Levu’
Zapornia sp. ‘Hawai’i 1’
Zapornia sp. ‘Hawai’i 2’
Zapornia sp. ‘Kaua’i 1’
Zapornia sp. ‘Kaua’i 2’
Zapornia sp. ‘Mangaia’
Zapornia sp. ‘Maui’
Zapornia sp. ‘Nuku Hiva’
Zapornia sp. ‘Rapa Nui’
Zapornia sp. ‘Ua Huka 1’
Zapornia sp. ‘Ua Huka 2’
Zapornia tabuensis
Zapornia ziegleri

Rhipiduridae

Rhipidura fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa
Rhipidura fuliginosa ssp. penita
Rhipidura fuliginosa ssp. placabilis
Rhipidura layardi ssp. erythronota
Rhipidura layardi ssp. layardi
Rhipidura nebulosa ssp. altera
Rhipidura nebulosa ssp. nebulosi
Rhipidura personata
Rhipidura rufilateralis

Scolopacidae

Coenocorypha aucklandica ssp. aucklandica
Coenocorypha aucklandica ssp. meinertzhagenae
Coenocorypha aucklandica ssp. perseverance
Coenocorypha barrierensis
Coenocorypha chathamensis
Coenocorypha heugeli
Coenocorypha iredalei
Coenocorypha miratropica
Coenocorypha pusilla
Coenocorypha sp. ‘Norfolk Island’

Prosobonia cancellata [J.J.F.J.J. 2020]
Prosobonia leucoptera
Prosobonia parvirostris
Prosobonia sauli [V.L.D.P.2020]
Prosobonia sp. ‘Mangaia’
Prosobonia sp. ‘Ua Huka’

Spheniscidae

Aptenodytes patagonicus ssp. halli

Eudyptes chrysocome ssp. filholi
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
Eudyptes robustus
Eudyptes schlegeli
Eudyptes sclateri
Eudyptes sp. ‘Cook Strait’
Eudyptes warhami

Eudyptula minor ssp. albosignata
Eudyptula minor ssp. chathamensis
Eudyptula minor ssp. iredalei
Eudyptula minor ssp. minor
Eudyptula minor ssp. variabilis
Eudyptula novaehollandiae

Megadyptes antipodes ssp. antipodes
Megadyptes antipodes ssp. richdalei

Megadyptes waitaha ssp. ‘North Island’
Megadyptes waitaha ssp. ‘South Island’

Pygoscelis taeniata [J.T.2020]

Sternidae

Anous albivitta ssp. albivitta
Anous albivitta ssp. skottsbergii
Anous cerulea ssp. ?
Anous cerulea ssp. cerulea
Anous cerulea ssp. murphyi
Anous cerulea ssp. nebouxi
Anous cerulea ssp. saxatilis
Anous cerulea ssp. teretirostris
Anous minutus ssp. marcusi
Anous minutus ssp. melanogenys
Anous minutus ssp. minutus
Anous stolidus ssp. pileatus
Anous stolidus ssp. ridgwayi

Chlidonias albostriatus
Chlidonias leucopterus

Gygis candida ssp. candida [H.D.P.2020]
Gygis candida ssp. leucopes [H.D.P.2020]
Gygis microrhyncha [H.D.P.2020]

Hydroprogne caspia

Sterna anaethetus
Sterna fuscata ssp. crissalis
Sterna fuscata ssp. kermadeci
Sterna fuscata ssp. oahuensis
Sterna fuscata ssp. serrata
Sterna lunata
Sterna paradisaea
Sterna striata
Sterna sumatrana
Sterna vittata ssp. bethunei

Sternula albifrons ssp. sinensis
Sternula nereis ssp. davisae

Thalasseus bergii ssp. cristata

Strigidae

Asio flammeus ssp. sandwichensis

Grallistrix auceps
Grallistrix erdmani
Grallistrix geleches
Grallistrix orion

Ninox albifacies ssp. albifacies
Ninox albifacies ssp. rufifacies
Ninox novaeseelandiae ssp. novaeseelandiae
Ninox novaeseelandiae ssp. undulata

Sturnidae

Aplonis atrifusca
Aplonis brevirostris
Aplonis brunnescens
Aplonis cinerascens
Aplonis diluvialis
Aplonis fortunae
Aplonis fusca
Aplonis manuae
Aplonis mavornata
Aplonis nesiotes
Aplonis rotumae
Aplonis tabuensis
Aplonis tenebrosa
Aplonis tutuilae
Aplonis ulietensis
Aplonis vitiensis

Sulidae

Morus capensis
Morus serrator

Papasula costelloi

Sula dactylatra ssp. personata
Sula dactylatra ssp. tasmani
Sula granti
Sula leucogaster ssp. brewsteri
Sula leucogaster ssp. plotus
Sula sula ssp. rubripes

Sylviornithidae

Megavitiornis altirostris

Thresciornithidae

Apteribis brevis
Apteribis glenos
Apteribis sp. ‘Lanai’
Apteribis sp. ‘Maui’

Platalea regia

Plegadis falcinellus [M.T.2015]

Turdidae

Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. lanaiensis
Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. ‘Maui’
Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. rutha
Myadestes myadestinus
Myadestes obscurus
Myadestes palmeri
Myadestes woahensis

Turdus hades
Turdus poliocephalus
Turdus ruficeps
Turdus samoensis
Turdus sp. ”Eua’
Turdus sp. ‘Lifuka’
Turdus sp. ‘Tongatapu’
Turdus tempesti
Turdus vitiensis ssp. layardi
Turdus vitiensis ssp. vitiensis

Tytonidae

Tyto delicatula
Tyto longimembris

Zosteropidae

Zosteropidae gen. & sp. ”Eua’
Zosteropidae gen. & sp. ‘Tongatapu’

Zosterops albogularis
Zosterops explorator
Zosterops lateralis ssp. flaviceps
Zosterops lateralis ssp. lateralis
Zosterops samoensis
Zosterops tenuirostris

***

11 of the families are endemic to the region.

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References:

[O.K.1830] Otto von Kotzebue: Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1823, 24, 25 und 26. Weimar: W. Hoffman 1830
[F.D.B.1840] F. D. Bennett: Narrative of a Whaling Voyage round the Globe, from the year 1833 to 1836. London: Richard Bentley 1840
[C.N.1943] Charles Nordhoff: Notes on the birds of Tahiti. The Avicultural Magazine ser. 5. 8(5): 119-120. 1943
[S.L.O. 1991] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[H.F.J. 2005] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidino: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005
[M.T. 2015] M. Thompson: Discovery of first breeding attempt of glossy ibis in New Zealand. Birds New Zealand 5: 10-11. 2015
[A.C. 2015] Alice Cibois; Jean-Claude Thibault; Mary LeCroy; Vincent Bretagnolle: Molecular analysis of a storm petrel specimen from the Marquesas Islands, with comments on specimens of Fregetta lineata and F. guttata. Bulletin of the British Ornitologists‘ Club 135(3):240-246. 2015
[W.A.C.2016] Willie A. Cook; Don Cooper; Philippa & John Foes-Lamb; Joan Gdanitz; Geoff Davis; Charmaine & Peter Field; David S. Melville: First and second breeding record of Australian wood duck (Chenonetta jubata) in New Zealand. Notornis 63: 105-108. 2016
[M.B.2016] M. Bruce; N. Bahr; N. David: Pampusanna vs. Pampusana: a nomenclatural conundrum resolved, along with associated errors and oversights. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club. 136: 86–100. 2016
[S.H.2019] Stuart Hawkins; Trevor H. Worthy: Lapita colonisation and avian extinctions in Oceania. In: Debating Lapita: Distribution, Chronology, Society and Subsistence, Publisher: ANU E-Press, pp. 439-467. 2019
[V.L.D.P.2020] Vanesa L. De Pietri; Trevor H. Worthy; R. Paul Scofield; Theresa L. Cole; Jamie R. Wood; Kieren J. Mitchell; Alice Cibois; Justin J. F. J. Jansen; Alan J. Cooper; Shaohong Feng; Wanjun Chen; Alan J. D. Tennyson; Graham M. Wragg: A new extinct species of Polynesian sandpiper (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae: Prosobonia) from Henderson Island, Pitcairn Island Group, and the phylogenetic relationships of Prosobonia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-26. 2020
[D.W.S.2020] David W. Steadman; Oona M. Takano: A new genus and species of pigeon (Aves, Columbidae) from the Kingdom of Tonga, with an evaluation of hindlimb osteology of columbids from Oceania. Zootaxa 4810: 401-420. 2020
[J.J.F.J.J.2020] Justin J. F. J. Jansen; Alice Cibois: Clarifying the morphology of the enigmatic Kiritimati Sandpiper Prosobonia cancellata (J. F. Gmelin, 1785), based on a review of the contemporary data. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 140(2): 142-146. 2020
[J.T.2020] Joshua Tyler; Matthew T. Bonfitto; Gemma V. Clucas; Sushma Reddy; Jane L. Younger: Morphometric and genetic evidence for four species of gentoo penguin. Ecology and Evolution 1-11. 2020
[P.R.2020] Philippe Raust: On the possible vernacular name and origin of the extinct Spotted Green Pigeon Caloenas maculata. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 140(1): 3-6. 2020
[H.D.P.2020] H. Douglas Pratt: Species limits and English names in the genus Gygis (Laridae). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 140(2): 195-208. 2020

*********************

edited: 05.11.2020

Fossil record of the Accipitriformes

Family incertae sedis

Aviraptor longicrus Mayr & Hurum [3]

Accipitridae

Anchigyps voorhiesi Zhang, Feduccia & James

Apatosagittarius terrenus Feduccia & Voorhies

Buteo sanfelipensis Suárez [3]

Buteogallus royi Suárez [4]

Garganoaetus freudenthali Ballmann
Garganoaetus murivorus Ballmann

Gigantohierax itchei Suárez [4]

Gyps bochenskii Boev
Gyps melitensis Lydekker

Neogyps errans Miller

Neophrontops americanus Miller
Neophrontops slaughteri Feduccia
Neophrontops vallecitoensis Howard
Neophrontops vetustus Wetmore

Palaeoplancus dammanni Mayr & Perner [1]

Vinchinavis paka Tambussi et al. [2]

Horusornithidae

Horusornis vianeyliaudae Mourer-Chauviré

Pandionidae

Pandion homalopteron Warter
Pandion lovensis Becker
Pandion pannonicus Kessler

Pandionidae gen. & sp. ‚Bad Münster am Stein, Germany‘

Sagittariidae

Amanuensis pickfordi Mourer-Chauviré

Pelargopappus magnus Milne-Edwards

*********************

References:

[1] Gerald Mayr; Thomas Perner: A new species of diurnal birds of prey from the late Eocene of Wyoming (USA) – one of the earliest New World records of the Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, and allies). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie – Abhandlungen 297(2): 205 – 215. 2020
[2] Claudia P. Tambussi; Federico J. Degrange; Patricia L. Ciccioli; Francisco Prevosti: Avian remains from the Toro Negro Formation (Neogene), Central Andes of Argentina. Journa of South American Earth Sciences 2020
[3] Gerald Mayr; Jørn H. Hurum: A tiny, long-legged raptor from the early Oligocene of Poland may be the earliest bird-eating diurnal bird of prey. The Science of Nature 107(48): 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-020-01703-z
[4] William Suárez: The fossil avifauna of the tar seeps Las Breas de San Felipe, Matanzas, Cuba. Zootaxa 4780(1). 2020

*********************

edited: 05.11.2020

Zeitgenössische Berichte über Vögel von den Bermudainseln

Im Moment beschäftige ich mich mit den Bermudas, einer der entlegensten Insel(gruppe)n und auch eine der Regionen über die nicht nur ich nicht viel weiß ….

Die Bermudas waren einst eine einzige, große Insel; durch den immer wieder ansteigenden und abfallenden Meeresspiegel während des Pleistozän ist die Landmasse aber immer wieder mehr oder weniger vollständig überflutet worden, was einerseits zur Entstehung –  andererseits aber auch immer wieder zum Aussterben vieler endemischer Arten geführt hat. Vermutlich haben aber viele der einheimischen Vogelarten viel länger überlebt als allgemein gedacht und sind erst zu Beginn des 17. Jahrhunderts nach der Ankunft der ersten menschlichen Siedler ausgerottet worden.

Das kann man den wenigen zeitgenössischen Berichten entnehmen, wenn man diese denn zu entziffern vermag.   🙂

… ja ja, zeitgenössische Beschreibungen … diese hier stammt von Captain John Smith (derselbe, der in der unfassbar verfälschten Geschichte um die Powhatan-‚Häuptlings’tochter Amonute, besser bekannt als Pocahontas, eine zentrale Rolle spielt) und wurde im Jahr 1623 niedergeschrieben.:

Birds.
Neither hath the aire for her part been wanting with due supplies of many sorts of Fowles, as the gray and white Hearne, the gray and greene Plover, some wilde Ducks and Malards, Coots and Red-shankes, Sea-wigions, Gray-bitterns, Cormorants, numbers of small Birds like Sparrowes and Robins, which have lately beene destroyed by the wilde Cats, Wood-pickars, very many Crowes, which since this Plantation are kild, the rest fled or seldome seene except in the most uninhabited places, from whence they are observed to take their flight about sun set, directing their course towards the North-west, which makes many coniecture there are some more Ilands not far off that way. Sometimes are also seene Falcons & Jar-falcons, Ospraies, a Bird like a Hobby, but because they come seldome, they are held but as passengers; but above all these, most deserving observation and respect are those two sorts of Birds, the one for the tune of his voice, the other for the effect, called the Cahow, and Egge bird, which on the first of May, a day constantly observed, fall a laying infinite store of Eggs neere as big as Hens, upon certaine small sandie baies especially in Coupers Ile; and although men sit downe amongst them when hundreds have bin gathered in a morning, yet there is hath stayed amongst them till they have gathered as many more: they continue this course till Midsummer, and so tame & feareles, you must thrust them off from their Eggs with your hand; then they grow so faint with laying, they suffer them to breed & take infinite numbers of their young to eat, which are very excellent meat.
“ [1]

Ich habe versucht, dieses etwas kauderwelschige Englisch ins Deutsche zu übertragen, direkt übersetzen lässt sich das leider nicht immer alles.:

Vögel.
Weder hat die Luft ihrerseits die richtige Versorgung mit vielen Arten von Geflügel verfehlt, wie dem grau-weißen Reiher
 [?], dem grau-grünen Regenpfeifer, einigen wilden Enten und Stockenten, Blässhühnern und Rotschenkeln, Meerenten [?], Graudommeln, Kormorane, eine Anzahl kleiner Vögel wie Spatzen und Fliegenschnäpper, die in letzter Zeit von den wilden Katzen vernichtet wurden, Spechten und sehr vielen Krähen, die seit der [Anlage der] Plantage getötet wurden, der Rest floh oder wird selten gesehen, außer an den unbewohntesten Plätzen, von wo aus beobachtet wird, dass sie ihren Flug gegen Sonnenuntergang antreten und ihren Kurs in Richtung Nordwesten richten, was viele Vermutungen zulässt, dass es einige weitere Inseln gibt, die nicht weit von diesem Weg entfernt sind. Manchmal werden auch Falken gesehen & Jar-Falken [?],Fischadler, ein Vogel wie ein großer Falke, aber weil sie selten kommen, werden sie nur für Besucher gehalten; vor allem aber verdienen diese beiden Arten von Vögeln Beachtung und Respekt, die eine für die Melodie seiner Stimme, die andere für sein Wirken, genannt [werden sie] Cahow, und Eier-Vogel, die am Ersten des Mai, einem stets beobachteten Tag, einen unendlichen Vorrat an Eiern, fast groß wie Hühner[eier], an bestimmte kleinen Sandküsten legen, besonders auf Coopers Island [seit den 1940ern künstlich mit St David’s Island verbunden]; und obwohl Männer unter ihnen sitzen, wenn sich an einem Morgen Hunderte versammelt haben, so bleiben sie doch unter ihnen, bis sie sich noch viele mehr versammelt haben: Sie setzen dies bis Mittsommer fort, und so zahm und angstlos, Du musst sie mit der Hand von ihren Eiern schieben, dann sind sie so schwach vom Legen, dass sie es nicht schaffen sie auszubrüten & [die Menschen] nehmen unendlich viele ihrer Jungen zum Essen, die sehr gutes Fleisch sind.“ 

***

Viele der hier aufgezählten Vögel lassen sich identifizieren: der ‚grau-weiße Reiher‘ ist vermutlich der Kanada-Reiher (Ardea herodias L.), bei den Enten, Stockenten und Meerenten handelt es sich ziemlich wahrscheinlich um verschiedene Wintergäste, wie sie auch heute noch auftreten, die Blässhühner dürften Amerikanische Blässhühner (Fulica americana Gmelin) sein, die Kormorane sind sicher Ohrenscharben (Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson)); bei den ‚Fliegenschnäppern‘ handelt es sich mit einiger Sicherheit um Bermuda-Weißaugenvireos (Vireo griseus ssp. bermudianus Bangs & Bradlee), die einzige noch existierende endemische Vogelform der Inseln.

Einige, wie der ‚grau-grüne Regenpfeifer‘ oder der ‚Rotschenkel‘ lassen sich nicht wirklich identifizieren (zumindest aber handelt es sich bei letzterem mit ziemlicher Sicherheit nicht um den eigentlichen Rotschenkel (Tringa totanus (L.))); auch die Falken lassen sich nicht eindeutig identifizieren, da einige Arten immer mal wieder als Zugvögel auf den Bermudas auftauchen.

Mindestens drei der hier augezählten Vögel existieren heute nicht mehr, die ‚Graudommeln‘, welche ziemlich sicher Bermuda-Krabbenreiher (Nyctanassa carcinocatactes Olson & Wingate) waren, die ‚Spatzen‘, die wohl Bermuda-Grundrötel (Pipilo naufragum Olson & Wingate) waren und die Spechte, die wiederum Bermuda-Goldspechte (Colaptes oceanicus Olson) gewesen sein dürften.

All diese Arten wurden ausschließlich anhand von Knochenfunden beschrieben und zwar 2006, 2006 und 2013. [2][3][4] 

***

Das größte Rätsel sind die hier erwähnten sehr vielen Krähen, denn davon gibt es auf den Inseln auch heute noch sehr viele, und zwar  Amerikanerkrähen (Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm), diese gehen jedoch nachgewiesenermaßen auf zwei Vögel zurück, die 1838 als Stubenvögel auf die Inseln gebracht worden waren.

Das bedeutet, dass es auf den Bermudas einst auch eine einheimische Krähenart gegeben haben muss, und dass diese obendrei auch noch sehr zahlreich gewesen sein muss.

Diese Form wurde offenbar von den ersten Siedlern ausgerottet, die die Krähen als Landwirtschaftsschädlinge betrachteten – scheinbar wiederholt sich die Geschichte nun, denn auch die heutzutage auf den Inseln lebenden Amerikanerkrähen werden als Schädlinge angesehen und verfolgt.

*********************  

Referenzen:

[1] John Smith: The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles: with the Names of the Adventurers, Planters, and Governours from their first beginning, An: 1584. to this present 1624. With the Procedings of Those Severall Colonies and the Accidents that befell them in all their Journyes and Discoveries. Also the Maps and Descriptions of all those Countryes, their Commodities, people, Government, Customes, and Religion yet knowne. Divided into Sixe Bookes. By Captaine Iohn Smith, sometymes Governour in those Countryes & Admirall of New England. London: printed by I. D. and I. H. for Michael Sparkes 1624
[2] Storrs L. Olson; D. B. Wingate: A New Species of Night-heron (Ardeidae: Nyctanassa) from Quaternary Deposits on Bermuda. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 119(2): 326-337. 2006
[3] Storrs L. Olson; David B. Wingate: A new species of towhee (Aves: Emberizidae: Pipilo) from Quaternary deposits on Bermuda. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125(1): 85–96. 2012
[4] Storrs L. Olson: Fossil woodpeckers from Bermuda with the description of a new species of Colaptes (Aves: Picidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 126(1): 17–24. 2013

*********************

bearbeitet: 05.11.2020

Nahmavis grandei Musser & Clarke

Endlich, endlich beschrieben!

Das dazugehörige Fossil ist schon seit etlichen Jahren bekannt und wurde ursprünglich als Angehöriger der ausgestorbenen Familie Salmilidae aus der Ordnung der Seriemaartigen (Cariamaformes) betrachtet.

Des Weiteren konnte man oft lesen, dass es sich um einen flugunfähigen Vogel mit winzigen Stummelflügeln gehandelt haben muss, schließlich kann man diese Flügelchen ja im Foto ganz gut erkennen … nun, nein, kann man eben nicht, was man hier sieht sind einfach nur etwas ‚unglücklich‘ gewachsene Federn; schaut man genau hin findet sich aber nicht die Spur irgendeines Flügelknochens!

Tatsächlich sind die Vordergliedmaßen des Tieres nach dem Tod bzw. während der Verwesung vollständig abhanden gekommen; sämtliche noch vorhandenen restlichen Teile weisen auf einen normal flugfähigen Vogel hin, er wird also zu Lebzeiten ganz normal ausgebildete Flügel besessen haben..

***

Nahmavis grandei, so heißt der Vogel nun, ist ein sehr ursprünglicher Vertreter der Regenpfeiferfamilie (Charadriiformes).

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] Lance Grande: The Lost World of Fossil Lake: Snapshots from Deep Time. University of Chicago Press 2013  
[2] Grace Musser; Julia A. Clarke: An exceptionally preserved specimen from the Green River Formation elucidates complex phenotypic evolution in Gruiformes and Charadriiformes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 8:559929. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.559929. 2020

*********************

Foto aus: ‚Grace Musser; Julia A. Clarke: An exceptionally preserved specimen from the Green River Formation elucidates complex phenotypic evolution in Gruiformes and Charadriiformes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 8:559929. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.559929. 2020‘

(under creative commmons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

*********************

bearbeitet: 26.10.2020

Fossil record of the Charadriiformes

Family incertae sedis

Becassius charadriioides De Pietri & Mayr

Cherevychnavis umanskae Bochenski, Wertz, Tomek, & Gorobets

Chionoides australiensis De Pietri et al.

Elorius limosoides De Pietri & Mayr
Elorius paludicola Milne-Edwards

Hakawai melvillei De Pietri, Scofiled, Tennyson, Hand & Worthy

Jiliniornis huadianensis Hou & Ericson

Nahmavis grandei Musser & Clarke [1]

Neilus sansomae De Pietri et al.

Palintropus retusus (Marsh)

Parvelorius calidris De Pietri & Mayr
Parvelorius gracilis (Milne-Edwards)

Scandiavis mikkelseni Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Mayr

Scolopacimilis lartetianus (Milne-Edwards)
Scolopacimilis sp. ‚Saint-Gerand-le-Puy, France‘

Sternalara milneedwardsi De Pietri et al.
Sternalara minuta De Pietri et al.

“Totanus” teruelensis Villata

Vanolimicola longihallucis Mayr

Alcidae/Pan-Alcidae

Aethia barnesi Smith
Aethia rossmoori Howard
Aethia storei Smith

Alca ausonia Portis
Alca carolinensis Smith & Clarke
Alca grandis Brodkorb
Alca minor Smith & Clarke
Alca olsoni Smith & Clarke
Alca stewarti Martin et al.

Alcodes ulnulus Howard

Brachyramphus dunkeli Chandler
Brachyramphus pliocenum Howard

Cepphus olsoni Howard

Cerorhinca dubia Miller
Cerorhinca minor Howard
Cerorhinca reai Chandler

Divisulcus demerei Smith

Fratercula dowi Guthrie et al.

Hydrotherikornis oregonus Miller

Mancalla californiensis Lucas
Mancalla cedrosensis Howard
“Mancalla” diegensis Miller
“Mancalla” emlongi Olson
Mancalla lucasi Smith
“Mancalla” milleri Howard
Mancalla vegrandis Smith

Miocepphus blowi Wijnker & Olson
Miocepphus bohaskai Wijnker & Olson
Miocepphus mcclungi Wetmore
Miocepphus mergulellus Wijnker & Olson

Miomancalla howardi (Smith)
Miomancalla wetmorei (Howard)

Praemancalla lagunensis Howard

Pseudocepphus teres Wijnker & Olson

Synthliboramphus rineyi Chandler

Uria affinis Marsh
Uria brodkorbi Howard
Uria paleohesperis Howard
Uria troile Lydekker

Burhinidae

Burhinus lucorum Bickart

Genucrassum bransatensis De Pietri & Scofield

Charadriidae

Charadrius lambrechti Kessler

Vanellus liffyae De Pietri, Scofield, Prideaux & Worthy

Cimolopterygidae (?)

Ceramornis major Brodkorb

Cimolopteryx maxima Brodkorb
Cimolopteryx rara Marsh

Lamarqueavis australis Agnolin
Lamarqueavis minima (Brodkorb)
Lamarqueavis petra (Hope)

Glareolidae

Becassius charadriioides De Pietri, Mayr & Scofield

Boutersemia belgica Mayr & Smith
Boutersemia parvula Mayr & Smith

“Gallinago” veterior Jánossy

Glareola neogena Ballmann

Mioglareola dolnicensis (Švec)
Mioglareola gregaria Ballmann

Paractiornis perpusillus Wetmore

Pinguinus alfrednewtoni Olson

Graculavidae (?)

Dakotornis cooperi Erickson

Graculavus augustus Hope
Graculavus velox (Marsh)

Palaeotringa littoralis Marsh
Palaeotringa vagans Marsh

Scaniornis lundgreni Dames

Telmatornis priscus Marsh

Zhylgaia aestiflua Nesov

Haematopodidae

Haematopus sulcatus (Brodkorb)

Jacanidae

Jacana farrandi Olson

Janipes nymphaeobates Rasmussen et al.

Nupharanassa bulotorum Rasmussen et al.
Nupharanassa tolutaria Rasmussen et al.

Laornithidae (?)

Laornis edvardsianus Marsh

Laricolidae

Laricola desnoyersii (Milne-Edwards)
Laricola elegans (Milne-Edwards)
Laricola intermedia De Pietri et al.
Laricola robusta De Pietri et al.
Laricola totanoides (Milne-Edwards)

Laridae

Larus dolnicensis Švec
Larus elmorei Brodkorb
Larus lacus Emslie
Larus perpetuus Emslie
Larus pristinus Shufeldt
Larus oregonus Shufeldt
Larus robustus Shufeldt

Pedionomidae

Oligonomus milleri De Pietri, Camens & Worthy

Recurvirostridae

Fluviatilavis antunesi Harrison

Himantopus brevipes Milne-Edwards

Rostratulidae

Rostratula minator Olson & Eller

Scolopacidae

Bartramia umatilla Brodkorb

Calidris binagadensis Serebrovsky
Calidris janossyi Kessler
Calidris pacis Brodkorb

Erolia penepusilla Brodkorb

Ereunetes rayi Brodkorb

Gallinago veterior Jánossy

Micropalama chapmani Campbell
Micropalama hesternus Wetmore

Scolopax baranensis Jánossy
Scolopax carmesinae Seguí

Stercorariidae

Stercorarius shufeldti Howard

Thinocoridae

Thinocorus koepckae Campbell

Turnipacidae

Cerestenia pulchrapenna Mayr

Turnipax dissipata Mayr
Turnipax oechslerorum Mayr & Knopf

*********************

References:

[1] Grace Musser; Julia A. Clarke: An exceptionally preserved specimen from the Green River Formation elucidates complex phenotypic evolution in Gruiformes and Charadriiformes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 8:559929. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.559929. 2020

*********************

edited: 26.10.2020

Todiramphus ‚divinus‘ – der ‚Göttliche‘ Liest

Two species of Kingfishers were common on Bora-Bora (Halcyon veneratus and Todiramphus tutus), ….

und

HALCYON VENERATUS. (Ruru.)
This species is fairly common, especially on the island of Bora-Bora.

TODIRAMPHUS TUTUS.
Common throughout the Tahiti group.
“ [2]

***

Diese beiden eher flüchtigen Randnotizen aus dem Jahr 1907 sind ein Hinweis auf die ehemalige Existenz einer Vogelart, die heute nicht mehr existiert und von der heute (fast) keine Spur mehr zu finden ist.

***

Die Gesellschaftsinseln sind einer der ganz wenigen Orte, an denen zwei Eisvogelarten gemeinsam vorkommen, zumindest auf den Inseln Mo’orea und Tahiti im Ostteil der Inselgruppe; hier finden sich der weit verbreitete Borabora-Liest (Todiramphus tutus (Gmelin)), der in der gesamten Inselgruppe vorkommt sowie der Tahiti-Liest (Todiramphus veneratus (Gmelin)) und der Moorea-Liest (Todiramphus youngi Sharpe), die auf jeweils eine Insel beschränkt sind.

Die beiden Verweise auf die Insel Bora Bora deuten aber an, dass dies offenbar auch auf weiteren der Inseln der Fall war.

Tatsächlich ist der geheimnisvolle Liest aber nicht nur durch kleine Randnotizen sondern anhand von mindestens zwei Exemplaren bekannt, die zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts gesammelt wurden, und von denen eines offenbar noch existiert. Dieses einzige noch erhaltene Exemplar wurde 2008 untersucht und mit dem Tahiti- und dem Moorea-Liest verglichen. 

Die Autoren kamen zu dem Schluss, dass es sich hierbei um einen nicht voll ausgefärbten Jungvogel der tahitianischen Art handelt, erwähnen jedoch auch einige Unterschiede, einschließlich eines viel kürzeren Schnabels und einiger Unterschiede im Gefiedermuster, und folgern, dass es sich möglicherweise auch um eine ausgestorbene Unterart handeln könnte. [3]

Die Art wurde auch mindestens einmal bildlich dargestellt (siehe unten). [1]

***

Zwischen Bora Bora im nordwestlichen Teil der Inselgruppe und Mo’orea und Tahiti im Ostteil befinden sich noch vier weitere Inseln, nämlich Huahine, Mai’ao, Ra’iatea und Taha’a, die, zumindest heute, jeweils nur vom Borabora-Liest bewohnt werden.

Sollte die Insel Bora Bora tatsächlich einst zwei Eisvogelarten beherbergt haben, dann muss es sich bei diesem Vogel nicht um eine Unterart des Tahiti-Liest, sondern um eine eigenständige Art gehandelt haben; und, die anderen Inseln zwischen Bora Bora und Mo’orea und Tahiti müssen höchstwahrscheinlich ebenfalls heute ausgestorbene und unbekannte eigenständige Arten beherbergt haben.

***

Meiner bescheidenen Meinung nach handelt es sich bei der Ortsangabe Bora Bora aber schlicht um einen Fehler, und die beiden dort gesammelten Vögel stammen wohl eher von der Insel Tahiti.

… doch wer weiß ….

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] M. L. I. Duperrey: Voyage autour du monde: Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824, et 1825, par M. L. I. Duperrey; Zoologie, par Mm. Lesson et Garnot. Paris: Arthus Bertrand 1828 
[2] S. B. Wilson: Notes on birds of Tahiti and the Society group. Ibis Ser. 9(1): 373-379. 1907
[3] Claire Voisin; Jean-François Voisin: List of type specimens of birds in the collections of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris, France). 18. Coraciiformes. Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 177(1): 1-25. 2008

*********************

‚Göttlicher‘ Liest (Todiramphus ‚divinus‘)

Darstellung aus: ‘M. Lesson: Description du genre Todiramphe et de deux espèces d’oiseaux; qui le compossent. Mémoires de la Société d’Histoire naturelle de Paris 2(3): 419-422. 1827’

(public domain)

*********************

bearbeitet: 24.10.2020

Fossil record of the Suliformes

Anhingidae

Anhinga beckeri Emslie
Anhinga fraileyi Campbell
Anhinga hadarensis Brodkorb & Mourer-Chauviré
Anhinga pannonica Lambrecht
Anhinga subvolans (Brodkorb)
Anhinga walterbolesi Worthy

Macranhinga paranensis Noriega

Meganhinga chilensis Alvarenga

Fregatidae

Limnofregata azygosternon Olson
Limnofregata hasegawai Olson & Matsuoka
Limnofregata hutchisoni Stidham

Phalacrocoracidae

Borvocarbo guilloti Mourer-Chauviré
Borvocarbo stoeffelensis Mayr
Borvocarbo tardatus Gohlich & Mourer-Cauviré

Limicorallus saiensis Kurochkin

Oligocorax littoralis Lambrecht
Oligocorax miocaenus Milne-Edwards

Paracorax destefanii Regalia

Phalacrocorax anatolicus Paicheler et al. 
Phalacrocorax chapalensis Alvarez
Phalacrocorax femoralis Miller
Phalacrocorax filyawi Emslie
Phalacrocorax goletensis Howard
Phalacrocorax idahensis Marsh
Phalacrocorax intermedius Milne-Edwards
Phalacrocorax kennelli Howard
Phalacrocorax leptopus Brodkorb
Phalacrocorax longipes Tugarinov
Phalacrocorax macer Brodkorb
Phalacrocorax macropus Cope
Phalacrocorax marinavis Shufeldt
Phalacrocorax mediterraneus Shufeldt
Phalacrocorax mongoliensis Kurochkin
Phalacrocorax novaezealandiae Forbes
Phalacrocorax praecarbo von Ammon
Phalacrocorax reliquus Kurochkin
Phalacrocorax risgoviensis Fraas
Phalacrocorax rogersi Howard
Phalacrocorax wetmorei Brodkorb

Piscator tenuirostris Harrison & Walker

Stictocarbo kumeyaay Chandler

Plotopteridae

Copepteryx hexeris Olson & Hasegawa
Copepteryx titan Olson & Hasegawa

Empeirodytes okazakii Ohashi & Hasegawa [1]

Hokkaidornis abashiriensis Sakurai et al.

Klallamornis abyssa Mayr & Goedert
Klallamornis clarki Mayr & Goedert

Phocavis maritimus Goedert

Plotopterum joaquinensis Howard

Stemec suntokum Kaiser et al.

Stenornis kanmonensis Ohashi & Hasegawa [1]

Tonsala buchanani Dyke et al.
Tonsala hildegardae Olson

Protoplotidae

Protoplotus beauforti Lambrecht

Sulidae

Bimbisula melanodactylos Benson & Erickson

Empheresula arvernensis Milne-Edwards

Eostega lebedinskyi Lambrecht

Masillastega rectirostris Mayr

Microsula pygmaea Milne-Edwards

Miosula media Miller

Morus atlanticus Shufeldt
Morus avitus Wetmore
Morus humeralis Miller & Bowman
Morus lompocanus Miller
Morus loxostylus Cope
Morus magnus Howard
Morus peninsularis Brodkorb
Morus peruvianus Stucchi
Morus recentior Howard
Morus reyana Howard
Morus vagabundus Wetmore

Paleosula stocktoni Miller

Prophalacrocorax ronzoni Gervais

Ramphastosula aguierrei Stucchi et al.
Ramphastosula ramirezi Stucchi & Urbina

Sarmatosula dobrogensis Grigorescu & Kessler

Sula arvernensis Milne-Edwards
Sula brandi Stucchi et al.
Sula clarki Chandler
Sula figueroae Stucchi et al.
Sula guano Brodkorb
Sula magna Stucchi
Sula phosphata Brodkorb
Sula pohli Howard
Sula sulita Stucchi
Sula universitatis Brodkorb
Sula willetti Miller

*********************

References:

[1] Tomoyuki Ohashi; Yoshikazu Hasegawa: New species of Plotopteridae (Aves) from the Oligicene Ashiya Group of northern Kyushu, Japan. Paleontological Research 24(4): 285-297. 2020

*********************

edited: 23.10.2020

Fossil record of the Apodiformes

Aegialornithidae

Aegialornis broweri Collins
Aegialornis gallicus Lydekker
Aegialornis leehnardti Gaillard
Aegialornis wetmorei Collins

Primapus lacki Harrison & Walker

Procuculus minutus Harrison & Walker (?)

Apodidae

Apus baranensis Jánossy
Apus gaillardi Ennouchi
Apus submelba Jánossy
Apus wetmorei Ballmann

Chaetura baconica Jánossy

Collocalia buday Boles

Procypseloides ignotus (Milne-Edwards)

Scaniacypselus szarskii (Peters)
Scaniacypselus wardi Harrison

Tachornis uranoceles Olson

Cypselavidae

Argornis caucasicus Karhu

Cypselavus gaillardi Ennouchi
Cypselavus gallicus Gaillard
Cypselavus intermedius Gaillard

Parargornis messelensis Mayr

Eocypselidae

Eocypselus rowei Ksepka et al.
Eocypselus vincenti Harrison

Jungornithidae

Jungornis geraldmayri Mourer-Chauviré & Sigé
Jungornis tesselatus Karhu

Palescyvus escampensis Karhu

Trochilidae

Eurotrochilus inexpectatus Mayr
Eurotrochilus noniewiczi Bochenski
Eurotrochilus sp. ‘ Lubéron, France’

*********************

editedt: 23.10.2020

Fossil record of the Aegotheliformes [1]

Aegothelidae

Quipollornis koniberi Rich & McEvey 

*********************

References:

[1] Albert Chen; Daniel J. Field: Phylogenetic definitions for Caprimulgimorphae (Aves) and major constituent clades under the International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature. Vertebrate Zoology, 70(4): 571-585. 2020

*********************

edited: 23.10.2020

Fossil record of the Nyctibiiformes [1]

Nyctibiidae

Euronyctibius kurochkini Mourer-Chauviré

Paraprefica kelleri Mayr
Paraprefica major Mayr 

*********************

References:

[1] Albert Chen; Daniel J. Field: Phylogenetic definitions for Caprimulgimorphae (Aves) and major constituent clades under the International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature. Vertebrate Zoology, 70(4): 571-585. 2020

*********************

edited: 23.10.2020

Fossil record of the Podargiformes [1]

Podargidae

Masillapodargus longipes Mayr

Quercypodargus olsoni Mourer-Chauviré

*********************

References:

[1] Albert Chen; Daniel J. Field: Phylogenetic definitions for Caprimulgimorphae (Aves) and major constituent clades under the International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature. Vertebrate Zoology, 70(4): 571-585. 2020

*********************

edited: 23.10.2020

Fossil record of the Steatornithiformes [1]

Steatornithidae

Prefica nivea Olson 

*********************

References:

[1] Albert Chen; Daniel J. Field: Phylogenetic definitions for Caprimulgimorphae (Aves) and major constituent clades under the International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature. Vertebrate Zoology, 70(4): 571-585. 2020

*********************

edited: 23.10.2020

Fossil records of the Caprimulgiformes

Family incertae sedis

Palaeopsittacus georgei Harrison

Protocypselomorphus manfredkelleri Mayr

Archaeotrogonidae

Archaeotrogon cayluxensis Gaillard
Archaeotrogon hoffstetteri Mourer-Chauviré
Archaeotrogon nocturnus Mlíkovský
Archaeotrogon venustus Milne-Edwards
Archaeotrogon zitteli Gaillard

Hassiavis laticauda Mayr

Caprimulgidae

Ventivorus ragei Mourer-Chauviré (?)

Fluvioviridavidae

Eurofluvioviridavis robustipes Mayr

Fluvioviridavis platyrhamphus Mayr & Daniels

*********************

edited: 23.10.2020

Die Vögel Europas von John Gould

Francis Roux: Die Vögel Europas von John Gould. Delphin 2019

*********************

… eines dieser Bücher, bei denen ich nicht genau weiß wie ich sie einordnen soll: es ist offenbar auch unter dem Titel „Die Vögel Europas: Tiermalerei in Vollendung“ in Umlauf, jedenfalls laut amazon.de, und es handelt sich um eines der wenigen Bücher, die ich in einem echten Buchladen gefunden habe, sogar hier in der Stadt in der ich lebe!

***

Das Buch ist in deutscher Sprache, scheint aber eine französische Produktion zu sein, die sich wiederum mit einem englischen Ornithologen, nämlich John Gould, beschäftigt, bzw. mit dessen Werk oder vielmehr mit den dazugehörigen Abbildungen, die allerdings wiederum gar nicht von John Gould stammen sondern von Joseph Wolf, einem deutschen Maler.

Die Texte stammen vom Autor, Francis Roux und nicht etwa von John Gould, der jedoch immer wieder zitiert wird … ein wenig verwirrend das Ganze, nicht wahr? 

***

Das Buch ist offenbar als eine Art Hommage an John Gould gedacht, fällt aber eher als eine an den oben erwähnten Maler aus, nun ja, die Bilder sind sehr schön und ich kann das Buch durchaus empfehlen, es ist kein Muss, aber eine nette Bereicherung für jede Vogelbuchsammlung.

*********************

bearbeitet: 19.10.2020

Rails: A Guide to the Rails, Crakes, Gallinules and Coots of the World

Barry Taylor; Ber Van Perlo: Rails: A Guide to the Rails, Crakes, Gallinules and Coots of the World. Yale University Press 1998

*********************  

Dieses Buch habe ich schon eine ganze Weile – ein Muss für jeden Rallen-Fan, wenngleich es allerdings eigentlich nur die noch lebenden Arten beinhaltet und ein paar der in historischen Zeiten ausgerotteten, darüber hinaus aber nicht auf all die zahllosen Arten eingeht, die nur anhand von subfossilen Knochenfunden bekannt sind.

***

Die Darstellungen sind recht großformatig und erinnern an Aquarelle, bzw. sind eigentlich Aquarelle oder eher gröber ausgefertigte  Wasserfarbenbilder, denen die oft feinen Details im Gefieder der echten Vögel fehlen.

Das Buch kann ich trotzdem nur empfehlen!

*********************

bearbeitet: 11.10.2020 

Qinornis paleocenica Xue

Mit dem Ende der Kreidezeit starben sämtliche so genannten Nichtvogeldinosaurier (was für ein Wortungetüm) aus, also alles was man landläufig als Dinosaurier bezeichnet aber eben auch sämtliche Vögel, die nicht der einzigen heute noch existierenden Gruppe der Vögel, den Neornithes, zugeordnet werden können.

… oder doch nicht?

***

Qinornis paleocenica ist anhand einiger Reste aus dem unteren oder mittleren Paläozän (vor etwa 61 Millionen Jahren) bekannt, die von einem einzelnen Individuum stammen: ein nahezu vollständiger linker Tibiotarsus, Teile des rechten Tibiotarsus sowie ein nahezu vollständiger rechter Tarsometatarsus mit fast allen Zehenknochen. [1]

Diese fossilen Knochen weisen einige Merkmale auf, die man bei heutigen Vögeln so nicht mehr findet, wohl aber bei einigen aus der Kreidezeit; vor allem ist der Tarsometatarsus nicht vollständig verschmolzen, er weist noch einige Riefen auf, wie man sie heutzutage nur noch bei juvenilen, nicht ausgewachsenen Vögeln findet, nicht aber mehr bei erwachsenen.

Laut einiger Experten für fossile Vögel handelt es sich bei dem Fossil aber durchaus um einen ausgewachsenen Vogel, und Qinornis paleocenica mag einer der allerletzten Vertreter einer der vielen kreidezeitlichen Vogelformen sein, die man zwar der Klade Ornithurae zuordnen kann, zu der auch die Neornithes gehören, die aber trotzdem außerhalb der Neornithes stehen. [2]

*********************

Ich bin mir nicht sicher, ob die Art wirklich nur drei Zehen hatte, das Fossil bzw. dessen Beschreibung umfasst jedenfalls nur drei.

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] X. Xue: Qinornis paleocenica – a Paleocene bird discovered in China. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 181: 89-93. 1995
[2] Gerald Mayr: The birds from the Paleocene fissure filling of Walbeck (Germany). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(2): 394-408. 2007

*********************

bearbeitet: 01.09.2020

Fossil record of the Sphenisciformes

Spheniscidae

Anthropodyptes gilli Simpson 

Anthropornis grandis Wiman
Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Wiman

Aprosdokitos mikrotero Acosta-Hospitaleche et al.

Aptenodytes ridgeni Simpson
Apterodytes ictus Ameghino

Archaeospheniscus lopdelli Marples
Archaeospheniscus lowei Marples
Archaeospheniscus wimani Marples

Arthrodytes andrewsi Ameghino

Crossvallia unienwillia Tambussi et al.
Crossvallia (?) waiparensis Mayr, De Pietri, Love, Mannering & Scofield

Dege hendeyi Simpson

Delphinornis arctowskii Myrcha et al.
Delphinornis larseni Wiman

Duntroonornis parvus Marples

Eudyptes atatu Thomas, Tennyson, Scofield, Heath, Pett & Ksepka [1]

Icadyptes salasi Clarke et al.

Inguza predemersus Simpson

Kaiika maxwelli Fordyce & Thomas

Kairuku grebneffi Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones
Kairuku waitaki Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones

Korora oliveri Marples

Kumimanu biceae Mayr et al.

Kupoupou stilwelli Blokland, Reid, Worthy, Tennyson, Clarke & Scofield

Madrynornis mirandus Acosta-Hospitaleche et al.

Marambiornis exilis Myrcha et al.

Marplesornis novaezealandiae Marples

Mesetaornis polaris Myrcha et al.

Muriwaimanu tuatahi Slack et al.

Nucleornis insolitus Simpson

Orthopteryx gigas Wiman

Pachydyptes ponderosus Oliver
Pachydyptes simpsoni Jenkins

Palaeeudyptes antarcticus Huxley
Palaeeudyptes gunnari Wiman
Palaeeudyptes klekowskii Myrcha et al.
Palaeeudyptes marplesi Brodkorb

Paraptenodytes antarcticus Moreno & Mercerat
Paraptenodytes brodkorbi Simpson
Paraptenodytes robustus Ameghino

Perudyptes devriesi Clarke et al.

Platydyptes amiesi Marples
Platydyptes marplesi Simpson
Platydyptes novaezealandiae Oliver

Pseudaptenodytes macraei Simpson
Pseudaptenodytes minor Simpson

Pygoscelis calderensis Acosta-Hospitaleche, Chávez & Fritis
Pygoscelis grandis Walsh & Suarez
Pygoscelis tyreei Simpson

Sequiwaimanu rosieae Mayr et al.

Spheniscidae gen. & sp. ‘Burnside Formation, New Zealand’

Spheniscus chilensis Emslie & Correa 
Spheniscus megaramphus Stucchi et al.
Spheniscus muizoni Gohlich
Spheniscus urbinai Stucchi

Tonniornis mesetaensis Tambussi et al.
Tonniornis minimum Tambussi et al.

Waimanu manneringi Slack, Jones, Ando, Harrison, Fordyce, Arnason & Penny

Wimanornis seymourensis Simpson

*********************

References:

[1] Daniel B. Thomas; Alan J. D. Tennyson; R. Paul Scofield; Tracy A. Heath; Walker Pett; Daniel T. Ksepka: Ancient crested penguin constrains timing of recruitment into seabird hotspot. Proceedings of the Royal Soiety B. 287(1932), 2020, s. 20201497, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2020.1497

*********************

edited: 12.08.2020

Saca, Sasa and Yasaca

P. H. Bahr in the year 1912 quotes a Dr. B. Glanvill Corney, at that time Chief Medical Officer in the Fiji Islands.:  

There is, or was until eight or ten years ago, a bird in the interior and northern coast of Vitilevu called the ‘Sasa’; described as having speckled plumage and running along the ground among reeds, cane-brakes, and undergrowth. … The Sasa did not fly, and seems to have been a mound-builder. I once met with some dogs in a remote mountain village that the natives had specially trained to hunt the Sasa, which they described as Koli dankata sasa, i. e. Sasa-catching dogs; but I never succeeded in seeing a Sasa, nor did my friend Mr. Frank R. S. Baxendale, who, as Assistant Resident Commissioner in the hill districts, lived for more than a year in the Sasa country. His successor, Mr. Georgius Wright, however, had several living specimens in his possession for some time, and told me that he considered they were Megapodes of the same or of an allied species to those met with in the island of Ninafou [Niuafo’ou] (Boscawen Island) and in Samoa. Some natives linkened them to Guinea-fowl, but said they were not so large as the latter, and that they laid a single egg. Between the years 1876 and 1905 they were still comparatively common and well known in the locality mentioned (where there are only a very few Europeans).” [1]

***

What follows is an account by Rollo H. Beck, an American ornithologist, who quotes some notes that he received by a Mr. G. T. Barker on June 5, 1925, during a stay on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji.: 

Saca Megapode

On the Tova Estate (Viti Levu Bay) one day, as I was riding toward the Wainibaka River, I heard a zooming noise on the rocks at my right. I dismounted to ascertain, if possible, what it was, as the place which had no trees, ws such an unusual one for a pigeon. The note, too, was different, having a more vibrant tone.
Grawling twenty feet along a runway but keeping myself hidden I came upon an abandoned clearing covered with short grass. The bird was about tne yards away. It ws slightly smaller than an English game rooster, had an aggressive head with yellow beak, and a stumpy tail. The coloring which was the same on the head as on the body was a mixed yellow, approaching red, and dingy black.
The bird continued its calling for a few minutes, and was answered from the far end of the clearing. Suddenly it took alarm, and as it flew out of the clearing I saw that under the rudimentary wings there were no yellow feathers. The wings had no long feathers made a whirring sound when the birds flew. I also noticed that its legs were stout, of yellow color, and that the foot had three toes. On questioning the natives, I was told that about sixty years ago there was a great area of grass country in that part, owing probably to a denser population, and also to the fact that the people were more industrious. At that time they used to hunt the bird with dogs and would secure up to fifty in a day. Even up to the coming of the mongoose, hese birds were still hunted, but owing to the spreading of the reeds over the country the catch became small.
The birds nested, generally, under the shelter of the dead leaves of the tree fern, never out in the open, and the birds used to take turns sitting on the nest. The natives described the eggs as being white, quite round, generally one, but on rare occasions, two in a nest. They used to hunt for the eggs, and when all hands were out, as many as a hundred a day would be secured. The eggs were hatched under hens in the village, but the saca always went back to the grass and would not remain in the town.
About two years after I had seen the bird, a dependable native who had hunted the birds in his youth, told me that he had seen a pair about two miles away from The place where I had observed them. Twenty was the largest number that had been observed in one flock.
The natives said that the flesh of the saca was dark, and always lean. Its wings seem to have been of some use for the bird is called in that part „the bird that lands on eight hillocks before being cought.“
The annual rainfall in that region averages ninety inches.
“ [2]

In my humble opinion this whole description, except for the nesting behaviour, sounds a lot like the description of a species of megapode (Megapodius sp.). 

Yasaca

This bird I have never seen, but from all accounts it differs from the saca. First it was called „Nasataudrau“, literally, „in hundreds“, meaning that a flock would be of about one hundred. It was said of them hat they buried their eggs for the sun to hatch out.
“ [2]

The rest seems to come directly from Mr. Beck.: 

Personally, I am doubtful if this bird ever existed in Fiji. I remember of asking a Sabeto Chief in the year 1890 if he had ever seen one – Sabeto, to the Segatoka River, being the region where the ordinary „saca“ was most plentiful. This chief was then a man over sixty years old; now add on the thirty-five years since that time – ninety five years ago, and he had never seen yasaca. He had only heard the trdition in his youth.
I am inclined to believe that the natives of this region brought the tale whith them from the Solomon Islands, where megapodes still are found. See, „A Naturalist Amongst the Head Hunters“ by Woodward. Mr. A. Barker has a copy of this book. There is a remarkable similarity of language between that part of the Solomons and Fiji, hence the tradition.
“ [2]

***

It is now well known that the Fiji Islands indeed were inhabited by at least two species of megapode, the Consumed Scrubfowl (Megapodius alimentum Steadman) and the Viti Levu Megapodius (Megapodius amissus Worthy). [3]

It is not really known when exactly these species disappeared; the abovementioned accounts, however, show that at least one of the species survived well into quite modern times.

********************* 

References:

[1] P. H. Bahr: On a Journey to the Fiji Islands, with Notes on the present Status of their Avifauna, made during a Year’s Stay in the Group, 1910-1911. The Ibis 9(6): 282-313. 1912
[2] Whitney South Sea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. Extracts from the journal of Rollo H. Beck. Vol. 2, Dec. 1923 – Aug. 1925
[3] T. H. Worthy: The fossil megapodes (Aves: Megapodiidae) of Fiji with descriptions of a new genus and two new species. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 30(4): 337-364. 2000

*********************

edited: 30.07.2020

Ground Doves in the Gilbert Islands?

The Polynesian Ground-Dove (Pampusanna erythroptera (Gmelin)) and the Friendly Ground-Dove (Pampusanna stairi (Gray)) are mentioned in several enumerations of birds that are thought to inhabit the Gilbert Islands in the Micronesian part of Kiribati.

So, I did a little search to find out something more ….:

The first thing I found was that D. H. R. Spennemann and H. Benjamin name these two species as inhabitants of the Marshall Islands, which apparently is an error since they use A. B. Amerson’s account as their source, in which they are clearly named as inhabiting the Gilbert – but not the Marshall Islands. [2][4].

This is the abovementioned account by A. B. Amerson Jr..:

Gallicolumba erythroptera* Ground Dove

Status — Introduced breeder in the Gilbert Islands.

Marshall-Gilbert Distribution Records — Breeding: Gilberts – Abemama, Nonouti.

Pacific Distribution — Native to the Society and Tuamotu Islands (Baker, 1951).

*Remarks — I am using the species designation given by Child (1960), who says this species was reported to have been introduced into the Gilberts from Nauru about 1940. Pearson (1962) did not find any doves at Nauru in 1961.
“ [2]

The Gilbertese name of this bird is given here as bitin, more about that later.

Gallicolumba stairi* Friendly Ground Dove

Status — Introduced, possible breeder in the Gilbert Islands.

Marshall-Gilbert Distribution Records — Gilberts – Abemama.

Pacific Distribution — Present only at Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa Islands (Peters, 1934)

*Remarks — I am using the species designation given by Child (1960) who says this species was probably introduced from Fiji.
“ [2]

Here the author states „Child (1960)“ as his source, so let’s see where that leads me to.

I could trace all accounts back to the following one, which appears to be the first that mentiones these two dove species, it is from a Peter Child who worked for about one year as an radio operator in the Coastwatching Organisation during WWII and who visited nearly all the islands in the ‚colony‘ within a time of three years from 1953 to 1956.

He was an amateur bird-watcher, as he called himself, but his accounts are in fact reliable, in my opinion.

Here they are.:

24. Gallicolumba erythroptera: Ground Dove.

Lupe palangi. Bitin (Taobe)

While Ducula is a native in the Ellice, being referred to in many old songs and legends, the ground doves are undoubtedly recent introductions of the present century, probably mainly from Fiji. At Abemama they are reported to have been introduced from Nauru about 20 years ago [ca. 1936 because this account was originally puplished in 1956], and have multiplied considerably so that there is now a fair number in a wild state. A few pairs have also been taken from Abemama to some other Gilbert Islands as pets, but in most of the Colony they are unknown. A pair taken to Nanouti had four offspring, and in June two females had nests about ten feet of the ground in an old deserted house; the nests were of grass and stra and built inside old boxes; each contained two eggs, oval in shape and creamy-white in colour. At Abemama they are said to nest in coconut crowns, often high above the ground. They feed mainly on the ground; when disturbed they fly up into the palms and their call, a soft „coo“, may then be heard.

The colouring is typically darkish greys and white; the head, neck, back and upper breats are grey with a purplish and greenish sheen or irridescence; the secondary wing feathers are mainly dark grey and the primaries and tail feathers mainly white; the abdomen is white, often speckled with grey, and he under tail-coverts white. The short bill is dark grey with a small whitish operculum at the base; the legs and feet are coral red, or purplish red. Some birds have less white than others, and hardly any two are exactly alike.
“ [1]

The name Bitin apparently is the local variation of the English word pigeon, while the name Taobeundoubtedly is the local variation of the German word Taube which means nothing but dove/pigeon; both these names suggest that the birds were imported from somewhere else.

The name Lupe palangi is the Tuvaluan name given to this bird, it can be translated as foreign pigeon (!).

It also appears to me that he did see this species with his own eyes.

He goes on with the second dove species.:

25. Gallicolumba stairii. Friendly Ground Dove.

There are few individuals in a semi-wild state at Abemama, probably of this species, and probably introduced from Fiji where it is common. The habits are similar to those of G. erythroptera, and there is no distinction in vernacular names of the two species.

The colouring is mainly brown with a little white on the wings and lower breast; the upperparts have a greenish sheen in some lights. The bill is dark and the feet deep red or purplish red.

*********************

Abemama atoll

STS-61A mission crew
https://eol.jsc.nasa.gov 

(public domain)

All in all it appears to me that both, the Polynesian- as well as the Friendly Ground Doves, indeed had been introduced sometimes during the middle 1930s, during WWII to at least the Abemama atoll, it appears not to be known by whom, and it also appears not to be known if they still exist there.  

Interesting is the statement that at least one of them had been brought from Nauru, where no groud dove species is known to have existed – and if one has existed it might rather have been a distinct, endemic one, but not the Polynesian Ground Dove.

Maybe someone with an interest in birds will be able to make a visit to the Abemama atoll some day and clarify these questions.

*********************

References:

[1] P. Child: Birds of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony. Atoll Research Bulletin 74:1-38. 1960
[2] A. B. Amerson Jr.: Ornithology of the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 127: 1-348. 1969
[3] Robert P. Owen: A checklist of the birds of Micronesia. Micronesica 13(1): 65-81. 1977
[4] Dirk H. R. Spennemann; Hemley Benjamin: Notes on the Avifauna of Ebon Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Historic Preservation Office 1992

*********************

edited: 30.07.2020

Lanius gambieranus – what is that?

When you’re dealing with extirpated/extinct birds, you will sooner or later come across species that raise more questions than others.

Such a species is the Mangareva-yes-what-actually?:

Lanius gambieranus Lesson, 1844, Écho du Monde Savant, p. 232 (cf. Ménegaux, p. 180). IlesGambier. Type perdu depuis longtemps.

Connue seulement par la description du spécimen qui était autrefois dans la collection du Docteur Abeillé de Bordeaux. Lesson précise qu’une peinture fut préparée par M. Charles Thélot de Rochefort, mais nous n’avons pas retrouvé cette peinture, ni d’ailleurs le spécimen. 
[RÉPARTITION ET STATUT]. – Selon Lesson, le spécimen décrit provenait des îles Gambier. Ces îles furent visitées par plusieurs expéditions maritimes françaises avant 1840, et le spécimen fut probablement rapporté par le frère de Lesson, le Docteur Adolphe Lesson, qui voyagea durant quatre années dans les mers du Sud comme «Chirurgien» à bord d’un bateau. Le spécimen était autrefois dans la collection Lesson à Rochefort. 
Les seules autres mentions de passereaux aux îles Gambier sont données par Garrett qui trouva des fauvettes durant la seconde moitié du xix* siècle (Wiglesworth, 1891b) et par Buck (1938) qui note KOMAKO – «Reed Warbler». Signalons aussi qu’une fauvette fut observée sur l’îlot Tepapuri en 1971 (Thibault, 1973b). Ce dernier oiseau, blanchâtre dessus et brun dessous, devait être un erratique de la forme habitant les atolls au nord des Gambier, A. caffer ravus. Deux spécimens M.N.H.N ont été considerés comme des oiseaux pouvant provenir des îles Gambier (Lacan et Mougin, 1974b), mais il s’agit vraisemblabIement d’une forme éteinte d’ A. luscinia provenant de Micronésie (Holyoak et Thibault, 1978b). L’expédition Whitney ne trouva pas de fauvette en visitant les îles Gambier, en dépit de nombreuses recherches en 1922 (Beck et Quayle, ms). 
[DISCUSSION], – L’oiseau décrit par Lesson ne correspond à aucune forme de spécimens connus. Il est douteux qu’il s’agisse d’une pie-grièche (Laniidae), comme l’avait pensé Lesson. Il est également peu probable que se soit un siffleur (Pachycephala), comme certains auteurs l’ont suggéré (Lacan et Mougin, 1974b; Thibault, 1973b).
La taille, la forme et la coloration font plutôt penser à une fauvette, voisine des formes habitant les îles Cook. Cette hypothèse serait d’autant plus vraisemblable qu’il serait étonnant que des îles volcaniques de la taille des Gambier n’aient pas eu de fauvettes. Sans doute, Lesson avait déjà décrit en 1820 la Fauvette de Tahiti comme appartenant au genre Tatare, mais il n’est pas étonnant qu’il n’ait pas établi de relation entre cette fauvette et l’oiseau des Gambier, en raison de leurs différences morphologiques importantes.
De nombreuses interrogations subsistent au sujet de cet oiseau et il n’est pas évident qu’il ait été véritablement collecté aux Gambier, bien que les autres descriptions de Lesson ne présentent pas d erreurs de localité.
 „

translation:

Lanius gambieranus Lesson, 1844, Écho du Monde Savant, p. 232 (cf. Ménegaux, p. 180). Gambier Islands. Type long lost.

Known only by the description of the specimen that was once in the collection of Doctor Abeillé de Bordeaux. Lesson specifies that a painting was prepared by Mr. Charles Thélot de Rochefort, but we have not found this painting, nor indeed the specimen.
[DIVISION AND STATUS]. – According to Lesson, the described specimen came from the Gambier Islands. These islands were visited by several French maritime expeditions before 1840, and the specimen was probably brought back by Lesson’s brother, Doctor Adolphe Lesson, who traveled for four years in the South Seas as a „surgeon“ aboard a boat. The specimen was formerly in the Lesson collection in Rochefort.
The only other records of passerines in the Gambier Islands are given by Garrett who found warblers in the second half of the nineteenth century (Wiglesworth, 1891b) and by Buck (1938) who noted KOMAKO – „Reed Warbler“. It should also be noted that a warbler was observed on Tepapuri islet in 1971 (Thibault, 1973b). This last bird, whitish above and brown below
 [shouldn’t it be vice versa?], must have been an erratic of the form inhabiting the atolls north of the Gambiers, A. caffer ravus. Two M.N.H.N specimens have been considered as birds that may have originated from the Gambier Islands (Lacan and Mougin, 1974b), but they are probably an extinct form of A. luscinia from Micronesia (Holyoak and Thibault, 1978b). [they are now known to indeed be specimens of a species formerly inhabiting the island of Mangareva] The Whitney expedition did not find a warbler when visiting the Gambier Islands, despite extensive research in 1922 (Beck and Quayle, ms).
[DISCUSSION], – The bird described by Lesson does not correspond to any form of known specimens. It is doubtful that it is a shrike (Laniidae), as Lesson had thought. It is also unlikely to be a whistler (Pachycephala), as some authors have suggested (Lacan and Mougin, 1974b; Thibault, 1973b). 
The size, shape and coloring are more like a warbler, similar to the forms found in the Cook Islands. This assumption would be all the more likely since it would be astonishing if volcanic islands the size of Gambier did not have warblers. No doubt Lesson had already described the Tahitian Warbler in 1820 as belonging to the genus Tatare, but it is not surprising that he did not establish a relationship between this warbler and the Gambier bird, because of their significant morphological differences. 
Many questions remain about this bird and it is not obvious that it was really collected in Gambier, although the other descriptions of Lesson do not present errors of locality.
“  [3]

Today, most ornithologists think that the description fits best with the extinct Mangarevan Reed-Warbler, a bird that is known to have indeed existed. Yet, there are in fact two surviving specimens of this species, Acrocephalus astrolabii Holyoak & Thibault, which, however, are still often referred to as having been collected somewhere in Micronesia, an assumption that is now obsoleted. [4]

However, the reed-warbler was much larger than 14 cm, and it lacks the yellow underside that our enigmatic bird is said to have had; but let’s just take a look on the original description, it is in French and reads as follows:

Cette pie-grièche est fort voisine du Lanius tabuensis de Latham. Comme elle, on la trouve dans le mer du Sud, et c’est aux îles Gambier qu’elle vit.
Cette espèce a les formes courtes et trapues. Elle mesure 14 centimètres. Ses ailes sont presque aussi longues que laqueue; son bec est peu crochu, bien que denté; il est noiràtre ainsi que les tarses; tout le plumage en dessus, les ailes et la queue sont d’un brun olivàtre uniforme; le devant du cou, à partir du menton jusqu’au haut de la poitrine, est olivàtre foncé; tout le dessous du corps, depuis le haut du thorax jusqu’aux couvertures inférieures, est du jaune le plus vif et le plus égal; les plumes tibiales sont brunes, mais cerclées d’une sorte de jarretiere jaune à d’articulation le dedans des ailes est varié de jaune et de blanc, ce qui forme un rebord étroit, blanc dessous du fouet de l’aile; la queue est légèrement échancrée, et le sommet des rectrices présente un point jaune.” [1]

Here is my translation:

This shrike is very close to Lanius tabuensis [Aplonis tabuensis (Gmelin)] of Latham. Like this, it is found in the South Sea, and it lives in the Gambier Islands.
This species has a short, squat form. It measures 14 centimeters. Its wings are almost as long as the tail; the beak is slightly hooked, but dentate; it is black as well as the tarsi; all the plumage above, the wings and the tail are uniformly olive brown; the front of the neck, from the chin to the top of the breast, is dark olive; the whole lower part of the body, from the top of the thorax to the lower coverts, is the liveliest and most even yellow; the tibial feathers are brown, but circled in a sort of yellow, hinged garter, the underside of the wings is varied with yellow and white, forming a narrow, white rim beneath the whip of the wing; the tail is slightly forked, and the top of the rectrices are dotted yellow.

You see, the species was described as a shrike (Laniidae) and as being very closely related to Lanius tabuensis.

Well, shrikes, of course, do not exist in Oceania at all, and Lanius tabuensis is called Aplonis tabuensis today and is a starling (Sturnidae), the South Sea Starling. You must know that in the 19th century still no one really had any idea of ​​biogeography, and the same applies to the relationships between the different bird species.

Not a shrike, but what about a starling – Aplonis gambieranus?

Hm, according to the description rather not, the size (14 cm) seems a bit too small (my gut feeling), and the colors do not fit to any other Polynesian starling.

Not a starling, but what about a robin – Eopsaltria gambierana?

EOPSALTRIA GAMBIERANA.
Lanius gambieranus, Less. Echo de M. S. 1844, p. 232.
Eopsaltria gambierana, Hartl. Wiegm. Arch. für Naturg. 1852, p. 133.
Low or Paumotu Islands (Gambier’s Islands or Mangarewa).
“ [2]

This genus does not occur in Polynesia, but the closely related genus Petroica does indeed (both genera belong to the family Petroicidae), however, both genera, in my eyes, can be excluded for biogeographic reasons.

Not a robin, but what about a whistler – Pachycephala gambierana?

The bird was for some time also thought to may have been a whistler and the genus Pachycephala indeed is occuring in Polynesia, yet only in the western part, namely in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga but not further east, so, no.

Not a whistler, but what about a monarch – Monarcha gambierana?

Personally, I think that the mysterious bird from the island of Mangareva most likely was a monarch species (Monarchidae), namely one of the genus Monarcha (formerly Pomarea). The size indication fits very well, as well as the specified colors, these fit quite well with the young birds of the surviving species of this genus. Apart from that, this genus also fits very well for biogeographical reasons, the distance between the Society Islands and the Gambier Archipelago is only slightly larger than that between the Society Islands and the Marquesas (where the genus still occurs today).

***

Lastly, I would like to mention that this species is officially no longer regarded as having existed at all, not just as dead/extinct, but as ‘having never existed’!

But why?

Because the type does not exist anymore? – this applies also to other species!
Because there was a picture that is now lost as well? – who actually is screwing up something like that, and … this too applies also to other species!
Because no one can say what kind of bird it actually could have been? 

In my humble opinion this enigmatic bird, which might very well have existed, most likely was either an somewhat aberrant starling or a member of the monarch family.

*********************

References:

[1] R.-P. Lesson: Catalogue descriptif des oiseaux nouveaux, rares ou peu connus, de la collection Abeillé. L’Écho du monde savant et l’Hermès: journal analytique des nouvelles et des cours scientifiques. 1844 pt. 2: 232
[2] George Robert Gray: Catalogue of the birds of the tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean in the collection of the British Museum. London: printed by order of the Trustees 1859
[3] D. T. Holyoak; J.-C. Thibault: Contribution à l’étude des oiseaux de Polynésie orientale. Mémoires du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle 127(1): 1-209. 1984
[4] Alice Cibois; Jon S. Beadell; Gary R. Graves; Eric Pasquet; Beth Slikas; Sarah A. Sonsthagen; Jean-Claude Thibault; Robert C. Fleischer: Charting the course of reed-warblers across the Pacific islands. Journal of Biogeography 38(10): 1963-1975. 2011

*********************

edited: 29.07.2020

A Fijian quail?

Was there formerly a quail species living on the Fijian Islands?

Well, here is an account by Rollo H. Beck, an American ornithologist, who quotes some notes that he received by a Mr. G. T. Barker on June 5, 1925, during a stay on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji.: 

Moa (Quail)

It is commonly said, by whites, that quail are the offspring of imported birds, but this cannot be so for I have tales that run back for hundreds of years mentioning this bird. A Mr. Coster who was one of the first white settlers on the Island of Koro said that quail were present in great numbers when he arrived there and this was many years back.
“ [1]

Indeed, there was a quail species living on the Fijian Islands, and it still does, because this account clearly refers to the Brown Quail (Synoicus ypsilophorus ssp. australis (Latham)) (see photo), an Australian species that was introduced to the Fijian Islands sometimes in the early 1900s.

The species is commonly called moa on the islands, it was introduced at least to the islands of Makogai, Vanua Levu, and Viti Levu; it is, however, now apparently restricted to the (artificial) grasslands of Vanua- and Viti Levu. [2]

*********************

Photo: Christopher Watson

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

********************* 

References:

[1] Whitney South Sea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. Extracts from the journal of Rollo H. Beck. Vol. 2, Dec. 1923 – Aug. 1925
[2] Edward Narayan: Troublesome birds of Fiji Islands. Lulu, Inc. 2014

*********************

edited: 29.07.2020

The ‚Blue Parrotfinch‘ of Micronesia

The ‚Blue Parrotfinch‘ of Micronesia is actually not really a mysterious bird, it is just the Blue-faced Parrotfinch (Erythrura trichroa (Kittlitz)).

This species inhabits northern Australia, New Guinea, the Maluku Islands, parts of Melanesia and, not least, the Micronesian islands, where it is found today on Chuuk, Kosrae, Palau, and Pohnpei; it very likely was once more widespread and did also inhabit the atolls surrounding these islands, especially those between Chuuk and Pohnpei, which share the same subspecies (ssp. clara Taka-Tsukasa & Yamashina). 

The following sentence was taken from an account by J. D. E. Schmeltz and R. Krause from 1881 and apparently refers to the Satawan atoll (unfortunately I couldn’t get my hands on the original).:

Ein verschlagenes Exemplar der Erythrura trichroa schoss K. [Kubary] einmal hier.“ [1][2]

translation:

„K. shoot a stray specimen of the Erythrura trichroa here once.“

***

This species is now mainly found in the higher parts of the abovementioned islands, but very likely was more widespread once, and it is absloutely possible, I guess, that it also inhabited at least some of the atolls between the islands, like so many other Micronesian land birds do.

***

The name ‚Blue Parrotfinch‘ refers to a specimen that was collected on Pohnpei and was kept in spirit for some years, thus it lost its green color and its plumage turned into a plain blue; this specimen was later described in 1876 as a distinct species, Erythrura glauca Finsch (see photo).

*********************

References: 

[1] J. D. E. Schmeltz; R. Krause: Ein Beitrag zur Kunde der Südsee-Völker. Die Ethnographisch- Anthropologische Abtheilung des Museum Godeffroy in Hamburg. L. Friederichsen & Co., Hamburg 1881
[2] Donald W. Buden: The birds of Satawan Atoll and the Mortlock Islands, Chuuk, including the first record of Tree Martin Hirundo nigricans in Micronesia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 126(2): 137-152. 2006

*********************

Pohnpei Blue-faced Parrotfinch (Erythrura trichroa ssp. clara) from Pohnpei 

Photo: Naturalis Biodiversity Center

(no copyright)

*********************

edited: 29.07.2020

Kischinskinia scandens Volkova & Zelkov

This species was described in 2018 based on a distal tarsometatarsal fragment and a distal fragment of a right tibiotarsus from the uppermost Early Miocene sediments of the Tagay locality on the island of Olkhon in Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia.

The single known fragment is most similar to the corresponding bone of the recent Wallcreeper (Tichodromia muraria (L.)), yet still differs sufficiently enough to justify its placement into a distinct, new genus.

The bird reached the size of a recent Wallcreeper and, like that species, had the ability to climb vertical surfaces. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] N. V. Volkova; N. V. Zelenkov: A scansorial passerine bird (Passeriformes, Certhioidea) from the uppermost Lower Miocene of eastern Siberia. Paleontological Journal 52(1): 53-60. 2018

*********************

edited: 25.02.2019

Miller’s Rail

Miller’s Rail is one of the more commonly known so-called mysterious birds.

This species is actually known exclusively from a single drawing made by Georg Forster sometimes between 1772 and 75 during the second voyage of James Cook [and a copy of it made by John Frederick Miller, who described the bird as a new species in 1784]. The annotation just states that it is a Rallus minutus, [a small rail], [called] Maho, [and coming from] Taheitee, [Tahiti]. 

The drawing is rather a crude one, not „fieldguide-suitable“ and shows a small bird, clearly identifiable as a crake, with rather dark, almost black feathers, sitting on its red legs.

The bird could very well just be a Spotless Crake (Zapornia tabuensis (Gmelin)), which today is still [patchily these days] distributed all over Polynesia, and of course was even more so 250 years ago!

***

There is yet another quite detailed description supposed to be of this species, made by John Latham in 1785 from the actual type, that is now lost.:

Otaheite R[ail].

LENGTH six inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, black: the head, neck, and all the under parts of the body, dark ash-colour: palest on the chin: the upper parts, and wing coverts, deep red brown: quills dusky, edged with white: edge of the wing, and the first quill feather, white: tail an inch and a half long, rounded in shape, and black: legs dusky yellow. Claws black.
Inhabits Otaheite, and the Friendly Isles. Sir Joseph Banks.
“ [2]

***

The same book contains the description of a variety of the Tabuan rail [now Spottless Crake (Zapornia tabuensis)] from the island of Tanna in the Solomon Islands chain which is often regarded to as being the description of the actual type specimen of Miller’s Rail, however, the description differs quite significantly from G. Forster’s depiction.:

This varies in having the plumage more inclined to brown: the vent white, transversely barred with black lines: legs red.
Inhabits the island of Tanna. Sir Joseph Banks.
” [1]

The island of Tanna, mentioned here as place of origin of this bird, was just one of several islands that were visited by Cook and his entourage in the middle of the 18th century, and the place names given by J. Latham are very often completely wrong, however, the descriptions on the other hand are rather complete and trustworthy.

It has to be taken into account that such old books most often lack any kind of register and that they mostly just use common names but lack scientific ones, searching inside them is a long-term venture.

***

It is now quite well known that in former times probably all of the islands in the tropical Pacific Ocean were inhabited by endemic rails, with several islands being known to have been inhabited by more than one species, and in many cases these were congeneric species, meaning species from one and the same genus – something that today is extremely rare, which, however, is a relict situation, left behind by human-induced extinctions. [5]

***

In ancient Tahiti, the meho too was thought to represent a deity, namely Tu (in his manifestation of moonlit sky), the meho’s cry is given as having been a „ho“, which is also thought to be the characteristic sound made by Tu himself. [3][4]

This little sentence is yet another prove for the former existence of another rail species on Tahiti beside the Red-billed Rail (Gallirallus pacificus (Gmelin)), which is also mentioned in this short enumeration of birds representincg gods in ancient Tahiti.

*********************

References:

[1] John Latham: A General Synopsis of Birds 3(1): 235. Leigh & Sotheby, London 1785
[2] John Latham: A General Synopsis of Birds 3(1): 236. Leigh & Sotheby, London 1785
[3] Teuira Henry: Ancient Tahiti. Bishop Museum Bulletins 48: 1-651. 1928
[4] Douglas L. Oliver: Ancient Tahitian Society. The University Press of Hawai’i, Honolulu 1974
[5] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************

Depiction by Georg Forster, 1772-75

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 28.07.2020

Henderson Island-Strandläufer

Fantastische Dinge kündigen sich an …:

V. L. De Pietri; T. H. Worthy; R. P. Scofield; T. L. Cole; J. R. Wood; A. Cibois, J. J. F. J. Jansen; G. Zhang; K. J. Mitchell; S. Feng; W. Chen; A. J. D. Tennyson; G. M. Wragg: A new species of Polynesian sandpiper (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae: Prosobonia) from Henderson Island, Pitcairn Group, and the scolopacid affinities of Prosobonia. 

wurde zur Veröffentlichung eingereicht im ‚Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society‘. [1]

*********************

Referenzen: 

[1] Justin J. F. J. Jansen; Alice Cibois: Clrifying the morphology of the enigmatic Kiritimati Sandpiper Prosobonia cancellata (J. F. Gmelin, 1785), based on a review of the contemporary data. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 140(2): 142-146. 2020

*********************

bearbeitet: 28.07.2020

Mo’ora-‚ura and toroa – a red duck and a surf duck from Tahiti?

In ancient times, Tahitians believed that several of their Gods and other celestial beings would show themselves to the human eye in form of an animal, a so-called ata and Teuira Henry [see also here] lists some of them, among them also three kinds of duck.:

Red-feathered duck (mo‘ora-‘ura), ata of ‘Orovehi‘ura (‘Oro in his manifestation of Red-feather-covered). 
Wild duck (mo‘ora-ōviri), ata of “sylvan elves.” 
Surf duck (toroa), ata of Hau, god of peace.
“ [1][2]

The ‚Wild duck‘, mentioned here, is the Pacific Black Duck (Anas superciliosa J. F. Gmelin) which is the only duck species known from French Polynesia at all, so what are the other two ‚ducks‘?

The most showy headdress worn officially by the king and princes and high chiefs was the taumi, a superb helmet made of clusters of crimson feathers of the moora ‘ura (red-feathered duck), set upon a light framework and covering the head like a bird, with a glossy terminal behind of outspreading red, black, and white feathers tastily mixed together.“ [1][2]

taumi, however, actually is a gorget decorated with feathers, a feathered helmet was called fau.:

Henry gives a description of a headdress which has some characteristics of a fau, but which seems to be a mixture of remembered types, further confused by the use of the name taumi, which we know was a gorget:“ [3]

The fau was also decorated with several of the elongated tail feathers of tropicbirds (as you can see in the depiction, in which they are from the White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus ssp. dorotheae Daudin)).

This depiction shows three men wearing a taumi, one of them, a tahu’a, a high priest, also wearing a fau, decorated with a ray of white tail streamers of the pete’a (Phaethon lepturus ssp. dorotheae).

Depiction from: ‚William Hodges: The fleet of Otaheite assembled at Oparee, 1777‘

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Teuira Henry: Ancient Tahiti. Bishop Museum Bulletins 48: 1-651. 1928 
[2] Douglas L. Oliver: Ancient Tahitian Society. The University Press of Hawai’i, Honolulu 1974
[3] Karen Stevenson; Steven Hooper: Tahitian fau – unveiling an enigma. Journal of the Polynesian Society 116(2): 181-212. 2007

*********************

edited: 27.07.2020

Einfarb-Ameisenpitta x 16

Der Einfarb-Ameisenpitta, ein hübsches, aber recht unspektakulär gefärbtes, langbeiniges Vögelchen aus der Andenregion Südamerikas, bei dem es sich eigentlich um keine eigentliche Art sondern um einen Artenkomplex handelt, wie ich hier schon einmal geschrieben hatte, ist nun endlich entsprechend untersucht worden. [1]

Das Ergebnis ist noch spektakulärer als ich persönlich erwartet hatte, tatsächlich ist den ehemaligen sechs Unterarten Artstatus zugestanden worden, es sind aber auch noch neue Arten hinzu gekommen, insgesamt sind dies nun 16 Taxa (15 Arten und eine Unterart).:

Chamí-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria alvarezi Cuervo, Cadena, Isler & Chesser)
Ayacucho-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria ayacuchensis Hosner,; Robbins, Isler & Chesser)
Kastanienbrauner Ameisenpitta (Grallaria blakei Graves)
Cajamarca-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria cajamarcae (Chapman)) 
Oxapampa-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria centralis Hosner, Robbins, Isler & Chesser)
Bolivischer Ameisenpitta (Grallaria cochabambae J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee) 
Graves‘ Ameisenpitta (Grallaria gravesi Isler, Chesser, Robbins & Hosner)
Junín-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria obscura Berlepsch & Stolzmann) 
Urobamba-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria occabambae ssp. occabambae (Chapman))
Marcapata-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria occabambae ssp. marcapatensis Isler, Chesser)
O’Neill-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria oneilli Chesser & Isler)
Zweifarb-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria rufocinerea Sclater & Salvin)
Muisca-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria rufula Lafresnaye) 
Perijá-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria saltuensis Wetmore)
Äquator-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria saturata Domaniewski & Stolzmann)
Puno-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria sinaensis Robbins, Isler, Chesser & Tobias)
Sierra Nevada-Ameisenpitta (Grallaria spatiator Bangs) 

*********************

Quelle: Morton L. Isler; R. Terry Chesser; Mark B. Robbins; Andrés M. Cuervo; Carlos Daniel Cadena; Peter A. Hosner: Taxonomic evaluation of the Grallaria rufula (Rufous Antpitta) somplex (Aves: Passeriformes: Grallariidae) distinguishes sixteen species

*********************

bearbeitet: 25.07.2020

The hypothetical birds of Polynesia

… just a list (in alphabetical order) of the hypothetical birds (marked in green letters) that once may have existed within the Polynesian triangle, in a rather conservative approach!

***

Acrocephalidae

Acrocephalus kerearako ssp. ”Atiu’
Acrocephalus kerearako ssp. ‘Ma’uke’
Acrocephalus musae ssp. ‘Bora Bora’

Acrocephalus musae ssp. ‘Maupiti’
Acrocephalus sp. ‘Austral Islands’

Acrocephalus sp. ‘Palmyra Atoll’

Alcedinidae

Todiramphus sp. ‘Makatea’
Todiramphus sp. ‘Me’eti’a’
Todiramphus sp. ‘Raivavae’

Todiramphus sp. ‘Rimatara’
Todiramphus sp. ‘Rurutu’
Todiramphus sp. ‘Tubuai’
Todiramphus tutus ssp. ‘Miti’aro’
Todiramphus ‘veneratus ssp.’ ‘Huahine’
Todiramphus ‘veneratus ssp.’ ‘Ra’iatea’

Anatidae

Anas sp. ‘Kiritimati’

Anatidae gen. & sp. ‘Ni’ihau Moa nalo’

Apodidae

Aerodramus sp. ‘Austral Islands’ 
Aerodramus sp. ‘Ma’uke’

Aerodramus sp. ‘Miti’aro’
Aerodramus sp. ‘Rarotonga’

Ardeidae

Butorides striata ssp. ‘Austral Islands’
Butorides striata ssp. ‘Cook Islands’
Butorides striata ssp. ‘Samoa’
Butorides striata ssp. ‘Tonga’

Nycticorax sp. ‘Samoa’ – may have survived on the Manu’a Islands (probably Ta’u) until the 1930s [3]

Columbidae

Ducula sp. ‘Pitcairn Island’

Macropygia sp. ‘Cook Islands’
Macropygia sp. ‘Fiji’
Macropygia sp. ‘Samoa’
Macropygia sp. ‘Tonga’

Pampusana sp. ‘Pitcairn Island’ [4]
Pampusana sp. ‘Raivavae’
[4]
Pampusana sp. ‘Rapa’
[4]
Pampusana sp. ‘Rimatara’
[4]

Ptilinopus sp. ‘Pitcairn Island’

Estrildidae

Erythrura sp. ‘Rotuma’
Erythrura sp. ‘Tonga’
Erythrura sp. ‘Wallis & Futuna’

Fringillidae

Chloridops sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Hemignathus sp. ‘Ni’ihau’
Hemignathus sp. ‘Ni’ihau Akialoa’
Hemignathus sp. ‘Ni’ihau Nukupu’u’


Loxioides sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Loxops sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Magumma sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Oreomystis sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Paroreomyza montana ssp. ‘Kaho’olawe’


Rhodacanthis sp.’Ni’ihau’

Telespiza sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Xestospiza sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Hemiprocnidae

Hemiprocne (mystacina) ssp. ‘Fiji’ 

Hirundinidae

Hirundo javanica ssp. ‘Samoa’
Hirundo sp. ‘Austral Islands’ 
Hirundo sp. ‘Cook Islands’

Hirundo sp. ‘Mangareva’

Lamproliidae

Lamprolia sp. ‘Kadavu’
Lamprolia sp. ‘Viti Levu’

Locustellidae

Megalurulus rufa ssp. ‘Kadavu’
Megalurulus rufa ssp. Taveuni

Megapodiidae

Megapodius sp. ‘Rotuma’
Megapodius sp. ‘Samoa’

Megapodius sp. ‘Wallis & Futuna’

Meliphagidae

Gymnomyza sp. ‘Kadavu’

Myzomela sp. ‚Futuna‘
Myzomala sp. “Uvea‘

Mohoidae (endemic family)

Moho sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Monarchidae

Monarcha sp. ‘Bora Bora’
Monarcha sp. ‘Huahine’
Monarcha sp. ‘Makatea’
Monarcha sp. ‘Mangaia’

Monarcha sp. ‘Maui Nui’
Monarcha sp. ‘Mo’orea’

Monarcha sp. ‘Ni’ihau’
Monarcha sp. ‘Ra’iatea/Taha’a’

Myiagra sp. ‘Rotuma’
Myiagra sp. ‘Tongatapu’

Motacillidae

Anthus novaeseelandiae ssp. ‘Macquarie Island’

Pachycephalidae

Pachycephala jacquinoti ssp. ‘Ha’apai Islands’
Pachycephala jacquinoti ssp. ‘Tongatapu’

Pandionidae

Pandion cristatus ssp. ‘Fiji’

Petroicidae

Petroica pusilla ssp. ”Eua’
Petroica pusilla ssp. ‘Tongatapu’
Petroica pusilla ssp. ‘Vava’u Islands’

Petroica pusilla ssp. ‘Wallis & Futuna’

Psittacidae

Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Bora Bora’
Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Cook Islands’
Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Huahine’

Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Raivavae’
Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Rimatara’
Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Rurutu’
Cyanoramphus sp. ‘Tubuai’
Cyanoramphus zealandicus ssp. ‘Mo’orea’

Eclectus infectus ssp. ‘Fiji’

Vini kuhlii ssp. ‘Society Islands’ – may have survived on Bora Bora until the 1830s [1]

Rallidae

Fulica sp. ‘Fiji’

Gallinula sp. ‘Tonga’

Gallirallus sp. ‘Aitutaki’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Alofi’

Gallirallus sp. ”Atiu’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Bora Bora’

Gallirallus sp. ‘Fatu Hiva’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Futuna’

Gallirallus sp. ‘Mai’ao’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Makatea’

Gallirallus sp. ‘Ma’uke’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Miti’aro’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Mo’orea’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Niau’

Gallirallus sp. ‘Ra’iatea’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Raivavae’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Rarotonga’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Rimatara’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Rotuma’

Gallirallus sp. ‘Savai’i’
Gallirallus sp. ‘Taveuni’

Gallirallus sp. ‘Ua Pou’
Gallirallus sp. ”Uvea’
Gallirallus sp. ”Upolu’

Porphyrio sp. ‘Bora Bora’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Fatu Hiva’

Porphyrio sp. ‘Mo’orea’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Nuku Hiva’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Rarotonga’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Tahiti’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Ua Huka’
Porphyrio sp. ‘Ua Pou’

Zapornia sp. ‘Aitutaki’
Zapornia sp. ‘Alofi’
Zapornia sp. ‘Anaa’

Zapornia sp. ”Atiu’
Zapornia sp. ‘Bora Bora’
Zapornia sp. ‘Eiao’
Zapornia sp. ‘Fatu Hiva’
Zapornia sp. ‘Futuna’

Zapornia sp. ‘Hiva Oa’
Zapornia sp. ‘Huahine’
Zapornia sp. ‘Kaho’olawe’

Zapornia sp. ‘Lana’i’
Zapornia sp. ‘Mai’ao’
Zapornia sp. ‘Makatea’

Zapornia sp. ‘Mangareva’
Zapornia sp. ‘Ma’uke’
Zapornia sp. ‘Maupiti’
Zapornia sp. ‘Me’eti’a’

Zapornia sp. ‘Miti’aro’
Zapornia sp. ‘Mohotani’
Zapornia sp. ‘Mo’orea’
Zapornia sp. ‘Niau’
Zapornia sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Zapornia sp. ‘Pitcairn Island’
Zapornia sp. ‘Ra’iatea’
Zapornia sp. ‘Raivavaea’
Zapornia sp. ‘Rapa’

Zapornia sp. ‘Rarotonga’
Zapornia sp. ‘Rimatara’
Zapornia sp. ‘Rotuma’
Zapornia sp. ‘Rurutu’
Zapornia sp. ‘Savai’i’
Zapornia sp. ‘Taha’a’
Zapornia sp. ‘Tahuata’

Zapornia sp. ‘Tetiaroa’
Zapornia sp. ‘Tubuai’
Zapornia sp. ‘Tupai’

Zapornia sp. ‘Ua Pou’
Zapornia sp. ”Upolu’
Zapornia sp. ”Uvea

Rhipiduridae

Rhipidura sp. ”Eua’
Rhipidura sp. ‘Tongatapu’

Scolopacidae

Coenocorypha sp. ‘Kermadec Islands’
Coenocorypha sp. ‘Macquarie Island’

Strigidae

Grallistrix sp. ‘Lana’i’
Grallistrix sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Sturnidae

Aplonis sp. ‘Austral Islands‘ 
Aplonis sp. ‘Bora Bora’
Aplonis sp. ‘Mangaia’ – may have survived into the late 19th/early 20th century [2]
Aplonis sp. ‘Mai’ao’
Aplonis sp. ‘Maupiti’
Aplonis sp. ‘Mo’orea’
Aplonis sp. ‘Tahiti’

Turdidae

Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. ‘Kaho’olawe’
Myadestes sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Turdus sp. ‘Wallis & Futuna’

Zosteropidae

Zosteropidae gen. & sp. ‘Samoa’

***

Let’s see which of ‘my’ hypothetical birds will be discovered in the future.   😛

*********************

References:

[1] M. L. I. Duperrey: Voyage autour du monde: Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824, et 1825, par M. L. I. Duperrey; Zoologie, par Mm. Lesson et Garnot. Paris: Arthus Bertrand 1828 
[2] F. W. Christian: List of Mangaia birds. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 29(114): 87. 1920
[3] J. S. Armstrong: Hand-list to the Birds of Samoa. John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, London 1932
[4] M. Bruce; N. Bahr; N. David: Pampusanna vs. Pampusana: a nomenclatural conundrum resolved, along with associated errors and oversights. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club. 136: 86–100. 2016

*********************

edited: 14.07.2020

Fossil record of the Jeholornithiformes

Jeholornithidae (?)

Jeholornis curvipes Lefèvre et al.
Jeholornis palmapenis O’Connor et al.
Jeholornis prima Zhou & Zhang

Jixiangornis orientalis Ji et al.

Kompsornis longicaudus Wang, Huang, Kundrát, Cau, Liu, Wang & Juae [1]

Shenzouraptor sinensis Ji et al.

*********************

References:

[1] Xuri Wang; Jiandong Huang; Martin Kundrát; Andrea Cau; Xiaoyu Liu; Yang Wang; Shubin Juae: A new jeholornithiform exhibits the earliest appearance of the fused sternum and pelvis in the evolution of avialan dinosaurs. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 2020

*********************

editet: 23.05.2020

Fossil record of the Falconiformes

Falconidae

Asturaetus furcillatus De Vis

Badiostes patagonicus Ameghino

Baza gracilis De Vis

Caracara creightoni Brodkorb
Caracara latebrosus Brodkorb
Caracara major Jones, Rinderknecht, Migotto & Blanco
Caracara seymouri Suárez & Olson
Caracara sp. ‘Río Quequén Grande, Argentinia’

Falco pisanus Portis
Falco ramenta Wetmore

Foetopterus ambiguus Moreno & Mercerat

Lagopterus minutus Moreno & Mercerat

Milvago brodkorbi Campbell
Milvago diazfrancoi Suárez

Polyborus latebrosus Wetmore

Sushkinia pliocaenica Tugarinov

Taphaetus brachialis De Vis
Taphaetus lacertosus De Vis

Thegornis debilis Ameghino
Thegornis musculosus Ameghino

Masillaraptoridae (?)

Masillaraptor parvunguis Mayr

*********************

References:

[1] William Suárez: The fossil avifauna of the tar seeps Las Breas de San Felipe, Matanzas, Cuba. Zootaxa 4780(1). 2020

*********************

edited: 22.05.2020

Der Harlequinkolibri – eine Art die nie existiert hat … oder doch?

Diese heute wohl kaum mehr bekannte ‚Art‘ wurde im Jahr 1788 anhand eines einzelnen Exemplars sowie einer Beschreibung von John Latham [1] als Trochilus multicolor Gmelin beschrieben.

Der Harlequinkolibri erreichte laut Beschreibung eine Größe von insgesamt 12,7 cm, hatte einen relativ langen Schnabel und war recht auffällig gefärbt.

Es sind einige Abbildungen dieser ‚Art‘ überliefert, im Ganzen existieren allerdings eigentlich nur zwei verschiedene Darstellungen, die wieder und wieder von verschiedenen Künstlern kopiert wurden. [2]

Wunderschön, aber ursprünglich wohl trotzdem eine aus verschiedenen Vögeln zusammengebaute Fälschung

Das einzige bekannte Harlequinkolibri-Exemplar wurde 1819 (?) als Fälschung erkannt und letzlich weggeworfen, so dass es nicht mehr für weitere Untersuchungen zur Verfügung steht. [2]

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] John Latham: Supplement to the General synopsis of birds. London: printed for Leigh & Sotheby 1787
[2] Robert Prŷs-Jones; Rick Wright: Rise and fall of the Harlequin Hummingird ‚Trochilus multicolor‘: a species that never was. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 139(3): 215-227. 2019

*********************

bearbeitet: 17.05.2020

Birds of Stone: Chinese Avian Fossils from the Age of Dinosaurs

Luis Chiappe; Meng Qingjin: Birds of Stone: Chinese Avian Fossils from the Age of Dinosaurs. Johns Hopkins University Press 2016

*********************

Dieses Buch zeigt die wohlbekannten fossilen Vögel aus den Ablagerungen der unteren Kreide der Liaoning-Formation in China mit großformatigen, hochauflösenden Fotografien.

Außerdem informiert es über den aktuellen Wissensstand, z.B. zu den Eigenarten des Skelettaufbaus und des Aufbaus des Weichgewebes oder der Federn, zum Wuchsverhalten der verschiedenen ausgestorbenen Vogel-Infraklassen und zu deren vermutlicher Lebensweise inklusive Ernährung und Vermehrung.

So weit so gut ….

Ich habe zwei kleine Kritikpunkte.:

-Das Buch beinhaltet bei weitem nicht alle der fossilen Vogelformen, die in der Liaoning-Provinz gefunden wurden sondern beschränkt sich auf einige der besser bekannten Gattungen wie Confuciusornis, Gansus usw..

-Das Buch ist voller großformatiger und großartiger Fotos von vielen der zahllosen Vogelfossilien, einige davon wurden nie zuvor publiziert, doch es ist nicht ein einziges Mal irgendeine Größenskala angegeben, was ich persönlich schade finde.

*********************

bearbeitet: 17.05.2020

Farbpalette

Ich habe mir mal eine Farbkarte gebastelt um mal meine ganzen Aquarellstifte auszuprobieren, das ist das Ergebnis.:

Die Farben sind ‚live‘ viel kräftiger als hier, einige tun regelrecht in den Augen weh.

Fossil record of the Piciformes

Family incertae sedis

“Neanis” kistneri (Feduccia) [1]

Picavus litencicensis Mayr & Gregorova

Piciformes gen. & sp. ‘Herrlingen, Germany’

Capitonidae

Capitonides europaeus Ballmann
Capitonides protractus Ballmann

Gracilitarsidae

Eutreptodactylus itaboraiensis Baird & Vickers-Rich (?)

Gracilitarsus mirabilis Mayr

Lybiidae

Pogoniolus (?) sp. ‘Kohfidisch, Österreich’

Picidae

Australopicus nelsonmandelai Manegold & Louchart

Dendrocopos major ssp. submajor Jánossy
Dendrocopos praemedius Jánossy

Palaeonerpes shorti Cracraft & morony

Picus peregrinabundus Umanska
Picus pliocaenicus Kessler

Pliopicus brodkorbi Feduccia & Wilson

Ramphastidae (?)

Rupelramphastoides kopfi Mayr

Sylphornithidae

Jacamatia luberonensis Duhamel, Balme, Legal, Riamon & Louchart [1]

Oligosylphe mourerchauvireae Mayr & Smith

Palaegithalus cuvieri (Gervais)

Sylphornis bretouensis Mourer-Chauviré

*********************

References:

[1] Anaïs Duhamel,  Christine Balme,  Stéphane Legal,  Ségolène Riamon, Antoine Louchart: An early Oligocene stem Galbulae (jacamars and puffbirds) from southern France, and the position of the Paleogene family Sylphornithidae. The Auk 2020

*********************

edited: 09.05.2020

SMNS 59466/19

Hinter diesem Arbeitsnamen verbirgt sich ein winziges Knochenfragment, das distale Ende eines linken Humerus, gerade einmal 0,27 cm hoch und 0,26 cm breit, es stammt aus einer etwa 26 Millionen Jahre alten Fundstätte bei Herrlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Deutschland.

Auch wenn es sich hierbei um das wohl kleinste Fragment handelt, das in Herrlingen gefunden wurde, lässt sich dieses, im Gegensatz zu nahezu allen anderen, zumindest grob einer Gruppe zuordnen, nämlich zu den Euoscines oder Eupasseres, zu denen heute nur noch die Dickichtvögel (Atrichornithidae) und Leierschwänze (Menuridae) Australiens gehören.

Der Vogel wird zu Lebzeiten eine Größe von etwa ca. 9 bis 12,5 cm erreicht haben, je nachdem an welchem Referenzmaterial man sich orientiert.

*********************

References:

[1] Albrecht Manegold: Passerine diversity in the late Oligocene of Germany: earliest evidence for the sympatric coexistence of Suboscines and Oscines.

*********************

edited: 07.05.2020

Unbekannte Linien innerhalb der Ordnung der Sperlingsvögel

Die Ordnung der Sperlingsvögel, die heute weltweit verbreitet ist (abgesehen vom antarktischen Kontinent), lässt sich ganz grob in drei Unterordnungen aufspalten: die Passeri (oder Oscines), die Tyranni (oder Suboscines) und schließlich die Acanthisitti, die nur noch zwei Gattungen und Arten umfassen, die auf Neuseeland beschränkt sind.

***

Anhand von oberoligozänen (vor 28 bis 23 Millionen Jahren) Fossilfunden aus Herrlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Deutschland ist noch mindestens eine vermutliche weitere „primitive“ Unterordnung mit mindestens einer Art belegt. [1]

Vermutlich gab es zu jener Zeit noch weitere solcher Unterordnungen von deren ehemaliger Existenz aber heute keine Fossilbelege mehr zeugen.

Ich habe mal ein bisschen herumgemessen und -gerechnet und bin auf eine geschätzte Gesamtgröße dieses Vogels von ungefähr 9 bis 15 cm gekommen, das ist so ziemlich genau total ungenau, als Referenzvögel habe ich Fotos von Starenskeletten sowie die Zeichnung eines Hopfstar-Skelettes (Fregilupus varius (Boddaert)) verwendet, wahrscheinlich kommt aber der kleinere Wert der Wahrheit am nächsten.

Vielleicht werde ich diesen namenlosen Vogel dann auch irgendwann einmal zeichnen.

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] Albrecht Manegold: The early fossil record of perching birds (Passeriformes). Palaeontologica Africana 44: 103-107. 2009

*********************

bearbeitet: 06.05.2020

Sie sind zurück!

Pünktlich zum 6. Mai sind sie wieder da, meine Lieblingsvögel – die Mauersegler.

Der unterste Vogel mag eine Schwalbe sein, die beiden anderen sind aber Mauersegler, und der obere der beiden scheint tatsächlich auf dem Rücken zu fliegen, vielleicht macht er gerade einen Looping.

*********************

bearbeitet: 06.05.2020

Winnicavis gorskii Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz, Happ, Bujoczek & Świdnicka

This is the “newest” of the European Oligocene birds with “brittly limbs”, this time only the wingbones are preserved. These are unlike the wingbones of any other passerine bird known so far, extant or extinct.

The bird was small, about the size of a Great Tit (Parus major L.), I will see if I am able to make some kind of reconstruction, whatsoever. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Zbigniew M. Bocheński, Teresa Tomek, Krzysztof Wertz, Johannes Happ, Małgorzata Bujoczek & Ewa Świdnicka: Articulated avian remains from the early Oligocene of Poland adds to our understanding of Passerine evolution. Palaeontologia Electronica 21(2). 2018

*********************

Let’s have a little update here.

I’ve made a little sketch, based on a Great Tit, however, knowing that this bird was not related to any of the modern Passeriformes, I thought of a little songbird-like creature resembling some of the Australian/Papuan “primitive” songbirds.

*********************

my reconstruction, the bird reached a size of about 15 cm or in other words was indeed about the size of a Great Tit; remember, only the wing bones and some impressions of several wing feathers are known

*********************

edited: 06.04.2020

Fossil record of the Pterocliformes

Pteroclidae

Linxiavis inaquosus Li, Stidham, Deng & Zhou

Pterocles larvatus Milne-Edwards
Pterocles sepultus Milne-Edwards
Pterocles validus Milne-Edwards

*********************

References: 

[1] Zhiheng Li; Thomas A. Stidham; Tao Deng; Zhonghe Zhou: Evidence of Late Miocene Peri-Tibetan aridification from the oldest Asian species of sandgrouse (Aves: Pteroclidae). Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 31 March 2020 

*********************

edited: 01.04.2020

Levaillant’s Pie-Grièche Rouge A Plastron Blanc

Levaillant’s Pie-Grièche Rouge A Plastron Blanc, the White Shrike with the Red Breastplate, is one of several enigmatic species of birds that were described in the early 1800s based on stuffed specimens that were actually just fakes composed by some business-minded taxidermist from the parts of several other birds, a practise that was quite common in former times.

The more unusual such a specimen the higher probably was its price ….

Depiction from: ‘François Le Vaillant: Histoire naturelle des oiseaux d’Afrique. Paris, chez J. J. Fuchs, libraire, Rue des Mathurins, Hôtel de Cluny: de l’imprimerie de Perroneau, Rue des Grands Augustins 1799’

(not in copyright)

Here is a part of the description, which mentions the supposed origin of this ’species‘ as having been the islands of the South Seas, which actually could be anywhere …:

Cette belle espèce appartient, à ce qu’on m’a assuré, aux îles de la mer du Sud. De quatre individus que j’ai vus, deux avoient la barre de l’aîle blanche au lieu d’être rouge; celles-ci seroient- elles des femelles? C’est ce que j’ignore, n‘ ayant euà leur égard aucun renseignement quelconque, et n’ayant vu que les peaux rembourrées de ces oiseaux.

translation:

This beautiful species belongs, as I have been assured, to the islands of the South Sea. Of the four individuals I saw, two had the bar of the wing white instead of being red; would these be females? This is what I do not know, having had no information whatsoever about them, and having only seen the padded skins of these birds.

***

However, the fake was uncovered 60 years later.:

Note. – The Lanius mystaceus, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. xix; Levaill. Ois. d’Afr. t. 65 (Laniarius mystaceus, G. R. Gray, Gen. of B. i. p. 299), has been stated by Levaillant to be from an isle in the South Seas. It is, however, a made-up bird, being composed of a portion of the Lanius ferrugineus, Gm., with the feathers on the belly and tail from a species of red Psittacus, while the breast and vent are those from a species of Malaconotus.“ [2]

The Lanius ferrugineus, Gm., mentioned here, is the Southern Boubou (Laniarius ferrugineus (J. F. Gmelin)) a bird without red feathers, so I personally think that the original body was ‚borrowed‘ from another species, possibly from the Crimson-breasted Gonolek (Laniarius atrococcineus (Burchell)), which then got decorated with the red tail feathers of another bird, which might well have been some species of parrot. 

*********************

References:

[1] François Le Vaillant: Histoire naturelle des oiseaux d’Afrique. Paris, chez J. J. Fuchs, libraire, Rue des Mathurins, Hôtel de Cluny: de l’imprimerie de Perroneau, Rue des Grands Augustins 1799
[2] George Robert Gray: Catalogue of the birds of the tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean in the collection of the British Museum. London: printed by order of the Trustees 1859

*********************

edited: 21.03.2020

The less popular case of Columba R. forsteri

A pigeon collected during one of J. Cook’s journeys in the middle of the 18th century on the island of Tahiti, Society Islands, was described and named Columba R. forsteri in 1829 by J. G. Wagler, this is the original description.:

C. R. Forsteri. Habitus et magnitudo C. globicerae; capite et cervice prorsus nigris; dorso, uropygio, remigibus et rectricibus coeruleo et viridi nitentibus; gula, jugulo, pectore, abdomine femoribusque fuliginosis; crisso ferrugineo; capistro albo; cera prorsus non globosa.

Columba globicera var.? Reinh. Forster in Manuscr.

Rostrum nigrum; pedes rubri. Habitat in insula Otaheite, ab incolis Aroobu appeliate.
“ [1]

(my humble) translation:

C. R. Forsteri. Shape and size of C. globicera; head and neck completely black; on the back, from the rump, and the rectrices shining blue and green; throat, neck, breast, belly (hips?) sooty; undertail coverts ferruginous; lores white; cere absolutely not globose.  

Columba globicera var.? Reinh. Forster in Manuscr.  

Beak black; feet red. Inhabits the island of Otaheite, named by the islanders Aroobu.

***

According to S. L. Olson and D. W. Steadman this description fits very well with the Nuku Hiva Imperial Pigeon (Ducula galeata (Bonaparte)), which is now restricted to the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas, but which indeed is known to have been much more widespread in former times. [2]

However, this species is much larger than the Polynesian Imperial Pigeon (Ducula aurora Peale) from Tahiti, named Columba globicera in the description, and not of the same size, and its head and neck are slate-colored and not black as the description says; anyway, neither the adult nor the juvenile Polynesian Imperial Pigeon have ferruginous undertail coverts while the Nuku Hiva Imperial Pigeon again has.

Nuku Hiva Imperial Pigeon (Ducula galeata); unfortunately the ferruginous undertail coverts are not visible in this photo

Photo: Samuel Etienne

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

So, after all, this little description may indeed be the only historical record of the Nuku Hiva Imperial Pigeon outside the island of Nuku Hiva, it disappeared sometimes during the 18th century. Subfossils assigned to this large bird are now known from Mangaia, Cook Islands; Hiva Oa, Tahuata and Ua Huka, Marquesas; as well as from Huahine, Society Islands. [3] 

However, I personally still have some doubts about the identity of these large imperial pigeon forms outside of the Marquesas, in my humble opinion they should rather be considered distinct forms.

*********************

References:  

[1] J. G. Wagler: Beiträge und Bemerkungen zu dem ersten Bande seines Sytsema Avium. (Fortsetzung III.) Isis von Oken 7: 735-762. 1829 
[2] S. L. Olson; D. W. Steadman: Comments on the proposed suppression of Rallus nigra Miller, 1784 and Columba R. Forsteri Wagler, 1829 (Aves) .Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 44, 126-127. 1987 
[3] David W. Steadman; Dominique S. Pahlavan: Extinction and biogeography of birds on Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia. Geoarchaeology 7(5): 449-483. 1992

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edited: 18.03.2020

A ground dove from Karoraina?

The genus Pampusana, formerly Gallicolumba and then Alopecoenas, apparently did once occur also as far northeast as to the Line Islands of Kiribati, as can be taken from an account from 1840 by Frederick Debell Bennett about a stay on Caroline Island, now named Karoraina.:

At night, on the 22nd of April, many shoal-birds came about the ship, greeting us with their hoarse cries, so prophetic of the vicinity of land; and at daybreak on the following morning, Caroline Island was seen from the mast-head, bearing N.W., distant 10 miles.

 The inland thickets contained a great number of small pigeons, with white head and neck, and the rest of their plumage of a rich brown colour.
“ [1]

This account might refer to a population of the Polynesian Ground Dove (Pampusana erythroptera (Gmelin)) as suggested by David W. Steadman & Dominique S. Pahlavan or, given the extreme distance between the northernmost Tuamotuan atolls and the island of Karoraina, may perhaps rather refer to a distinct, now extinct species. [2]

*********************

References:  

[1] F. D. Bennett: Narrative of a Whaling Voyage round the Globe, from the year 1833 to 1836. London: Richard Bentley 1840
[2] David W. Steadman; Dominique S. Pahlavan: Extinction and biogeography of birds on Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia. Geoarchaeology 7(5): 449-483. 1992

*********************  

edited: 17.03.2020

A reed-warbler from Rurutu?

I found another interesting account that I had overlooked previously in ‚Te Manu: Bulletin de la Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie. Nr 25. December 1998‘.:

De notre correspondant Yves GENTILLOMME à Rurutu 
Lors du passage de Jean-Yves Meyer sur l’île de Rurutu, Yves Gentillomme lui a signalé avoir entendu le chant facilement reconnaissable d’une fauvette (Acrocephalus sp.). Il n’y a pas de description de fauvettes à Rurutu dans la littérature mais on en trouve une sur l’île voisine de Rimatara: Acrocephalus rimitarae (autrefois considérée comme une sous espèce de Acrocephalus vaughani de Pitcairn) – cf TE MANU n°23. Il s’agit peut être d’un oiseaux en provenance de cette île. Il existe une autre observation de fauvette aux Australes sur l’île de Raivavae. Cette observation ancienne n’a jamais été renouvelée.
“ [1]

translation:

From our correspondent Yves GENTILLOMME in Rurutu 
During Jean-Yves Meyer’s visit to Rurutu Island, Yves Gentillomme told him that he heard the easily recognizable song of a warbler (Acrocephalus sp.). There is no description of warblers in Rurutu in the literature but there is one on the neighboring island of Rimatara: Acrocephalus rimitarae (formerly considered as a subspecies of Acrocephalus vaughani from Pitcairn) – see TE MANU n°23. It may be a bird from this island. There is another sighting of a warbler in the Austral Islands on Raivavae Island. This ancient observation has never been repeated.

***

Today the island of Rurutu does not harbor an endemic reed-warbler species but it may well have done so in former times; the neighboring island of Rimatara, however, still is home to an endemic form of reed-warbler, the Rimatara Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus rimitarae (Murphy and Mathews)), and the bird heard singing on Rurutu in the late 1990s might indeed have been such a bird.

The Rimatara Reed-Warbler may be in the state of expanding its distributional area, or there may just be some stray birds appearing on neigboring islands from time to time. 

There is, however, a very little possibility that there is an endemic Rurutu Reed-Warbler that has survived into the late 1990s.

*********************

References:

[1] Te Manu: Bulletin de la Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie. Nr 25. December 1998

*********************

edited: 17.03.2020

Bird safari

We are more or less ‚housebound‘ thanks to the Corona virus … so, we took a walk through the city.

It is now definitely spring because there are starlings singing from almost every tree.:

European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris ssp. vulgaris); this one is not singing it is pruning its feathers

I usually don’t look at the Mallards because they are typical feral ducks, many of which don’t resemble wild ducks at all.:

Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ssp. ptatyrhynchos); a nice-looking couple

Another sign for/of spring are singing Chaffinches, like with the starlings, almost every tree has its own singing Chaffinch right now, however, they are very difficult to photograph because they usually fly away as soon as they spot the camera.:

Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs ssp. coelebs); a male waiting for a female to arrive

This is a Goldfinch, it has one of the most beautiful songs of all European birds.:

European Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis ssp. carduelis); a photo with very bad light

This little cutie was hopping about as close as only one meter away from us, so I could make at least two quite good pictures.:

Robin (Erithacus rubecula ssp. rubecula)

Ein Strandläufer vom Manua’e-Atoll, Gesellschaftsinseln?

The quail spoken of by an early writer as occuring on Christmas [Kiritimati] and possibly other islands was probably the native sandpiper, as it resembles a quail when running on the ground and a merchant here told me the other day of quail on Scilly Islands [Manua’e] which he is putting into coconuts.“ [1]

Übersetzung:;

Die Wachtel von einem früheren Schreiber als auf Christmas und möglicherweise anderen Inseln vorkommend erwähnt war wohl der einheimische Standläufer, da er einer Wachtel ähnelt wenn er am Boden rennt und ein Händler hier erzählte mir neulich von Wachteln auf den Scilly-Inseln die er in Kokosnüsse steckt.

Diese eher beiläufige Randnotiz ist der einzige Hinweis auf die frühere Existenz einer Strandläuferart (Prosobonia sp.) auf den ‚Inseln hinter dem Wind‘ in der Gruppe der Gesellschaftsinseln, einer Art derselben Gattung, von der bekannt ist, dass sie in der Vergangenheit auf den Inseln Mo’orea und Tahiti im Südosten des selben Archipels vorkam.

Die einzige der Inseln dieser Gruppe auf der man bisher eine Fossillagerstätte entdeckt hat ist Huahine, von dort liegen, zumindest bisher, noch keine Funde dieser Gattung vor.   

Die Form vom Manua’e-Atoll, wenn sie wirklich existiert hat – und ich denke, sie könnte durchaus existiert haben, könnte mit jener identisch gewesen sein, die aus subfossilen Überresten bekannt ist, die auf der Insel Mangaia im Cook-Archipel gefunden wurde [2], oder es mag sich um eine eigenständige Form gehandelt haben; aber sie war sicher nicht identisch mit den Vögeln der Inseln Mo’orea und Tahiti, und sie war auch ganz sicher nicht identisch mit dem Tuamotu-Strandläufer (Prosobonia parvirostris (Peale)), da das Manua’e-Atoll viel näher beim Cook-Archipel liegt als am Tuamotu-Archipel. 

Interessant ist die Tatsache, dass der oben zitierte Bericht offenbar aus dem frühen 20. Jahrhundert stammt, was darauf hinweist, dass diverse polynesische Vogelformen viel länger überlebt haben als oft angenommen.

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] Whitney South Sea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. Extracts from the journal of Rollo H. Beck. Vol. 1, Sept 1920 – June 1923
[2] D. W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************

bearbeitet: 15.03.2020

A Fijian hummingbird?

Rollo H. Beck, an American ornithologist, quotes some notes that he recieved by a Mr. G. T. Barker on June 5, 1925, during a stay on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji: ‚Notes by Mr. G. T. Barker, Suva, Fiji. June 5, 1925‘.

One of these notes is about an alleged Fijian hummingbird.:

Humming bird

One evening as I was sitting on the steps, I saw what I took to be a night moth settle on a hibiscus flower. …
The supposed moth kept its wings in rapid motion, while poised before the flower sucking the honey with its long slender bill.
I struck the „moth“ with a fly switch which I had in my hand, and on picking it up, found that I had killed a small bird. I had seen only the pictures of humming birds but I concluded that this was one. Its slightly curved bill was black, as was the slender, pointed tail; the fine feathers on the breast were a bright red; the shoulders and patch under the tail were of darker tone.
Herewith is a sketch drawn to scale, which I made the next morning, after I found that the rats had eaten the bird from the wall where I pinned it. 
1921

Depiction by G. T. Barker; from: ‚ Whitney South Sea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. Extracts from the journal of Rollo H. Beck. Vol. 2, Dec. 1923 – Aug. 1925‘

(public domain)

Feathers, fine as the fur of flying fox
Wings, very small
Body, red
Head and back, darker than breast
Bill and legs, black
“ [1]

Of course, hummingbirds are not found outside of the Americas, and this anecdote is 
supposed to have taken place on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. 

But what kind of bird is involved in this story then? 

I have to confess that I have no real idea, the most likely candidate is the orange-breasted Myzomela (Myzomela jugularis Peale), however, this species hasn’t a red body.

***

I personally think that this account is a very bad eyewithness records, made by someone not really interested in the natural world.

*********************

References:

[1] Whitney South Sea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. Extracts from the journal of Rollo H. Beck. Vol. 2, Dec. 1923 – Aug. 1925

*********************

edited: 14.03.2020

Was there once a Giant Kingfisher living on the Fiji Islands?

The Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris (Boddaert)) has a extremely wide distribution and occurs from parts of Arabia well into western Polynesia; it is the only kingfisher living on the Fiji Islands (with three endemic subspecies) – yet, may there once have been another kingfisher species?

Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris ssp. vitiensis)

Photo: Tom Tarrant

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

Rollo H. Beck, an American ornithologist, quotes some notes that he received by a Mr. G. T. Barker on June 5, 1925, during a stay on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji: ‚Notes by Mr. G. T. Barker, Suva, Fiji. June 5, 1925‘.:

Giant Kingfisher

I saw this bird, or a single bird at least, on two occasions and it rose, both times, from nearly the same place. On the last occasion, I was on the lookout for it and it passed within twenty feet in front of me so that I had a good opportunity to see it clearly. I was riding down from the village of Navuniwi, Viti Levu Bay, toward the beach and it was from a patch of swampy ground on my left that the bird arose.
The kingfisher was fully eleven inches long, with the same colored plumage as the small kind only more dingy. The blue was not so bright, and the white feathers on the wings were discolored. The back was nearly black. Its flight was heavy-much slower than that of the small species, and as it flew in a straight line toward the mangrove swamp on my right, I noticed that it held its head in a line with the shoulders.
Natives told me that these giant kingfishers were plentiful in the early days, but as the bird nested in the low mangrove, it has practically disappeared since the advent of the mongoose which is a vertitable beach comber, haunting the swamps and beaches. About twenty-five years previously I had seen one of them back of Ovalau, but was told that it was only stray in that part.
On the second occasion of my seeing the giant flycatcher
 [indeed, he writes flycatcher here instead of kingfisher], I dismounted from my horse and went into the swampy patch, finding that the bird had been eating the native sila (Job’s tears) [Coix lacryma-jobi (L.) Lam.].

Ordinary Flycatcher
 [?]

It is generally supposed that this bird is an insect eater, and does not eat fish, but this is not invariably so. As I was coming out of the Wainidoi River, ten miles below Suva, I saw a belo
 [Pacific Reef Heron (Egretta sacra (Gmelin))] fishing in shallow water, and getting close up, noticed that it had a kingfisher in company. Three times I saw the kingfisher dive into the shallow water after shrimps, then fly onto a rock to eat them.“ [1]

So, what’s this somewhat strange account about?

There is indeed a possibility that the large Fijian Islands once harbored more than one kingfisher species, however, this particular account here pretty sure refers to the Collared Kingfisher, with the small species mentioned being the European Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis (L.)).

The whole account is expressed a bit unhappily, and this Mr. G. T. Barker very likely wasn’t a naturalist at all, that becomes very clear when he later also descibes a hummingbird that he had killed on the Fijian Island, and which in fact has been a honeyeater (Myzomela jugularis Peale) (his description, however, does not fully match that species, but that is another story ….).   

*********************

References:

[1] Whitney South Sea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. Extracts from the journal of Rollo H. Beck. Vol. 2, Dec. 1923 – Aug. 1925

*********************

edited: 13.03.2020

Birds of Paradise hybrids – Astrapian Sicklebill

The exceedingly beautiful Astrapian Sicklebill is known from exactly one single specimen.

The form, also known as Green-breasted Riflebird, was described as a good species in 1897, it is however, a hybrid form with the Arfak Astrapia (Astrapia nigra (J. F. Gmelin)) and the Black Sicklebill (Epimachus fastuosus (Hermann)) being the parent species.

It is somewhat strange that the same species are thought to be the parents of a very distinct form, Elliot’s Bird of Paradise (Epimachus elliotti Ward).

Depiction from: ‚Ernst Hartert: Notes on the Paradiseidae figured on plates VII. and VIII. Novitates Zoologicae 18: 604. 1911‘

(public domain)

********************

References:

[1] Clifford B. Frith; Bruce M. Beehler: The Birds of Paradise: Paradisaeidae. Oxford University Press 1998

********************

edited: 11.03.2020

Ari-manou – an extinct parrot from Bora Bora?

While checking old papers regarding the enigmatic Divine Kingfisher from the island of Bora Bora, I found that the same paper mentions the existence of a lorikeet on the same island, well actually even two species of lorikeets, one being the Blue Lorikeet (Vini peruviana (Statius Müller)) and the other one being Kuhl’s Lorikeet (Vini kuhlii (Vigors)).  

Or was it something else? 

***

Well here are the original text passages.:  

On nous donna á Borabora une espèce vivante de perruche très-voisine du phigy de Levaillant …, peut-être encore plus voisine de la perruche fringillaire …, et que M. Vigors a décrite récemment … sous le nom de psittacula Kuhlii. 
Cet oiseau, sur lequel nous fournirons de nouveaux détails dans la partie descriptive des espèces, a la langue terminée par un petit cercle de papilles nerveuses; ses habitudes sont vives et colériques, et son naturel sauvage.
”  

translated:  

We were given on Borabora a living species of parrot very close to the phigy of Levaillant …, perhaps even closer to the parakeet that Mr. Vigors has recently described … under the name of psittacula Kuhlii. 
This bird, on which we will furnish new details in the descriptive part of the species, has the tongue terminated by a small circle of nerve papillae; his habits are lively and angry, and his temper is wild.
”  

and the second part:  

Cet oiseau a les narines en scissure et la langue terminée par un cercle de papilles longues, qu’on retrouve chez l’ Ari-manou. Il se nourrit de bananes, et son caractère est extrêmement colérique. Nous nous le sommes procuré dans l’île de Borabora. 
Cette petite perruche à queue pointue a de longueur totale six pouces. Son bec et ses tarses sont orangés; le front est vert; les plumes de la tête et de l’occiput sont longues, étroites, d’un bleu céleste au sentre et frangées de noir sur les bords; les joues, le devant de la gorge et du cou, jusqu’au haut du ventre, sont d’un rouge vermillon mat: le milieu du ventre est aussi de ce même rouge, mais la région anale et les plumes des cuisses sont dún bleu pourpré. Le plumage est en entier d’un vert lustré clair, plus foncé et teint roussatre sur le manteau; la queue est jaune en-dessous et verte et jaune en-dessus. Les rémiges sont noires et vertes.
”  

translated:  

This bird has cracked nostrils and the tongue ends with a circle of long taste buds, found in the Ari-manou [?]. It feeds on bananas, and its character is extremely choleric. We obtained it on the island of Borabora. 
This small-tailed parrot has a total length of six inches
[ca. 15,3 cm]. Its beak and tarsi are orange; the forehead is green; the feathers of the head and of the occiput are long, narrow, of a heavenly blue in the center, and fringed with black on the edges; the cheeks, the front of the throat and the neck, up to the upper part of the belly, are of a matt vermilion red: the middle of the belly is also of this same red, but the anal region and the feathers of the thighs are of a blue purple. The plumage is entirely lighter green, darker and reddish on the mantle; the tail is yellow below and green and yellow above. The flight feathers are black and green.”  

***

Well, the description mostly fits with Kuhl’s Lorikeet, except for the color of the mantle (said to be darker and reddish; but is yellowish green in V. kuhlii), and the tail (said to be yellow below and green and yellow above; but is yellowish green and red in V. kuhlii).  

So what do we have here?  

Kuhl’s Lorikeet was once more widely distributed, this is a fact that is known, the bird inhabited mostly all of the Austral- and the Cook Islands, but what about the Society Islands?  

Kuhl’s Lorikeet (Vini kuhlii); photographed at the Museum Heineanum, Halberstadt

There are also some old oral traditions from the Society Island published in 1928, mentioning at least seven different kinds of parrots, some can be identified as well-known species, others can’t.  

***

My guess is, the likeliest possibility is that this parrot from Bora Bora may represent a now extinct subspecies of Kuhl’s Lorikeet from the Society Islands.  

***

There’s a little update here as well:

The following small account is found in G. R. Gray’s ‚ Catalogue of the birds of the tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean in the collection of the British Museum‘.:

CORIPHILUS KUHLII

‚Ari-manou‘ of the natives of the Society Islands.
Society Islands (Borabora); Sandwich Islands.
“ [2]

I thus changed the name of the supposed bird in the headline.

*********************  

References:

[1] Teuira Henry: Ancient Tahiti. Bishop Museum Bulletins 48: 1-651. 1928 [2] M. L. I. Duperrey: Voyage autour du monde: Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824, et 1825, par M. L. I. Duperrey; Zoologie, par Mm. Lesson et Garnot. Paris: Arthus Bertrand 1828
[2] George Robert Gray: Catalogue of the birds of the tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean in the collection of the British Museum. London: printed by order of the Trustees 1859

*********************  

edited: 10.03.2020

A swamphen from Ra’iatea?

Swamphens (genus Porphyrio) are distributed worldwide (except of course Antarctica), five species are currently officially recognized. In my opinion there are actually more species, 11 to be exact, namely if the Purple Swamphen (species complex) is split into the distinct species which it actually consists of.

And then there are the extinct members including five described species and seven not-yet-described ones.

***

And … then there are the hypothetical ones … two so far, one of which I have already written about here:

The Tahitian Mountain Goose

The other one is way less mysterious and on the other hand much more mysterious, it is a swamphen from Ra’iatea, Society Islands.

The island of Ra’iatea lies 50 km east of Huahine, the home island of McNab’s Swamphen (Porphyrio mcnabiKirchman & Steadman), one of 12 the extinct swamphen forms known on the basis of subfossil bones only.

***

What do we actually known about the mysterious bird of today’s post?

Not much. There is a little note among a big listing of Polynesian (including Melanesian and Micronesian) birds, which says the following.:

319.* Porphyrio sp.
Porphyrio sp. (Schmeltz), Cat. Mus. Godef. 1874 V, p. XVI; Garrett, 1. C. note.
Island of Raiatea, Society Is. (Garrett).
This species is known from two young specimens only.
“ [1]

***

And that’s it.

I could not find out anything else.

But … the Australian Swamphen is known to be a trampy species and has colonized new Zealand only quite recently, maybe only after the colonization of the islands by the first Polynesians. The same species has also colonized parts of Oceania, where the ssp. pelewensis Hartlaub & Finsch has evolved in Palau and the ssp. samoensis Peale (including. ssp. vitiensis Peale) in western Polynesia.

So, the two Ra’iatean birds may in fact not have been collected on Ra’iatea at all but on another island, or they may have been taken there but may have originated from another place, maybe from Samoa, the closest place where swamphens still exist today.
… or the Ra’iatean birds were indeed a distinct subspecies or perhaps rather species that survived into the 19th century.

***

Here is a little update for this enigmatic bird.:

Porphyrio porphyrio (L.), Talève poule-sultane. 

La seule citation de l’espèce en Polynésie orientale est due à Wiglesworth (1891b) qui mentionne «Porphyrio species» à Raiatea d’apres deux spécimens immatures collectés par Andrew Garrett. Il semble que les spécimens aient disparu. Il est douteux qu’il s’agisse d’une erreur d’étiquetage car Garrett ne visita certainement pas les Samoa, ni d’autres îles de ‚ouest du Pacifique. Ces oiseaux étaient donc, soit des visiteurs de Samoa, soit les représentants d’une population vivant autrefois à Raiatea et éteinte depuis longtemps.
“ [2]

translation:

Porphyrio porphyrio (L.), Purple Swamphen.  

The only quotation of the species in Eastern Polynesia is due to Wiglesworth (1891b) which mentions «Porphyrio species» in Raiatea according to two immature specimens collected by Andrew Garrett. The specimens appear to have disappeared. It is doubtful that this was a labeling error because Garrett certainly did not visit Samoa or other islands in the western Pacific. These birds were therefore either visitors from Samoa or representatives of a population formerly living in Raiatea and extinct for a long time.

*********************

[1] Lionel K. Wiglesworth: Aves polynesiae: a catalogue of the birds of the Polynesian subregion (not including the Sandwich Islands). Berlin: R. Friedlaender & Sohn 1891 In: Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königl. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Etnographischen Museums zu Dresden Bd. 3: 1-84. 1890/91. herausgegeben von Hofrath Dr. A. B. Meyer, Director des Museums
[2] D. T. Holyoak; J.-C. Thibault: Contribution à l’étude des oiseaux de Polynésie orientale. Mémoires du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle 127(1): 1-209. 1984

*********************

edited: 10.03.2020

What is the Colombe Oricou?

Just recently, that means today, I did hear about this pigeon for the first time.

What is known about this bird?

Colombe Oricou (Columba auricularia Temminck & Knip)

Depiction from: Pauline Knip: Les pigeons, par Madame Knip, née Pauline de Courcelles, le texte par C. J. Themminck. Paris: chez Mme. Knip 1838-1843

(public domain)

Well, let us read (a part of) the description.:

Nous avons vu une variété entièrement blanche qui n’avoit du noir que sur la queue; d autres avoient le plumage plus ou moins marqué de taches grises et noires : ces derniers nous ont paru être de jeunes oiseaux. Les pieds sont constamment d’un beau rouge, et le bec est noir.
Nous présumons que l’Oricou habite les îles de la mer Pacifique, c’est du moins par des vaisseaux venant de ces parages que quelques individus ont été rapportés en Angleterre. Le Pigeon qui a servi de modèle à notre planche coloriée est déposé dans le cabinet de M. Raye de Breukelerwaert à Amsterdam. Cet amateur possède aussi la variété de cette espèce, dont les ailes sont entièrement blanches.“ [1]

translation:

We saw an entirely white variety that only had black on the tail; others had more or less marked plumage of gray and black spots: these appeared to us to be young birds. The feet are constantly beautiful red, and the bill is black.
We assume that the Oricou lives in the islands of the Pacific Sea, it is less by vessels from these areas than a few individuals have been reported in England. The Pigeon which served as a model for our colored board is deposited in the cabinet of Mr. Raye de Breukelerwaert in Amsterdam. This amateur also has the variety of this species, whose wings are entirely white.

The description clearly based on a stuffed specimen, and the first and last sentences are especially interesting … for reasons …. 

***

The bird is also mentioned in another work.:

Note. – The Columba auricularis, Temm. Pig. t. 20,

is said to inhabit some of the islands of the Pacific Ocean; and others have more particularly given the Friendly Islands 
[Tonga] as the abode of this bird; but it is only an artificial production of some ingenious bird-preserver.“ [2]

Ah, there it is: the Colombe Oricou apparently was one of the many made-up stuffed animals stored in museum- and private collections all over the world, made by extremely talented taxidermists and sold as exceedingly rare specimens for the highest prices – a practice that was quite common in former times.

***

The only question that remains is, which birds are involved here?

The body might have been that of a common feral pigeon, and the naked parts may indeed just have been plucked and painted subsequently.

That’s just all.

*********************

References:

[1] Pauline Knip: Les pigeons, par Madame Knip, née Pauline de Courcelles, le texte par C. J. Themminck. Paris: chez Mme. Knip 1838-1843
[2] George Robert Gray: Catalogue of the birds of the tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean in the collection of the British Museum. London: printed by order of the Trustees 1859

*********************

edited: 10.03.2020

A reed-warbler from Raivavae?

Hi there!

While reading some stuff in my ‚reed warbler book‘ [3] last night, I suddenly remembered that there was a sighting or rather a ‚hearing‘ of a reed-warbler on an island where no such reed-warbler was known to exist, and I was quite sure that this was one of the Cook Islands but could not find any mention of it.

But then i found it and it was one of the Austral Islands, namely Raivavae, where a reed warbler was recorded in 1968, and it was apparently indeed not seen but heard only, but it was at least identified as being a reed-warbler.

The island of Raivavae has no surviving endemic land bird species today, but of course did have some of them in the past, among them very, very, veeery likely also a reed-warbler species, and in my humble opinion this appears to have survived until the mid 20th century at least.

***

So, I’ve checked my ‚usual suspects‘ and found some furter informations, but not really that much, unfortunately.

Te Manu: Bulletin de la Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie. Nr 24. September 1998:

Une espèce non identifiée d’Acrocephalus a été notée à Raivavae en 1968 mais n’a pas été retrouvé en 1990 (Seitre et Seitre 1991) et pouvait donc être un oiseau erratique.

translation:

An unidentified species of Acrocephalus was recorded at Raivavae in 1968 but was not found in 1990 (Seitre and Seitre 1991) and could therefore be an erratic bird.

This record obviously is mentioned by D. T. Holyoak and J.-C. Thibault in 1984 [1] but I was not able to read it myself, however, I’m rather convinced that the ‚erratic bird‘ more likely is meant to be what in German is called a „Irrgast“, a migratory bird that appeared on the island inadvertently while flying from one point to another.

But are there migratory reed warblers flying over the Austral Islands? No, because if they fly from north to south or back, they just do not cross the middle of the Pacific Ocean since the migratory reed-warbler species only inhabit the continents of the ‚Old World‘ and those inhabiting the Polynesian islands do not migrate, as far as I know.

***

In chapter 7 of David W. Steadman’s ‚Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific birds‘ from 2006 [2] it is mentioned as Acrocephalus vaughani and as a ‚M, modern record‘ from Raivavae. How could I actually miss that until today?

****

I personally are rather sure that this single record from the island of Raivavae is indeed the last record of a former existing population of native, probably endemic, Raivavae Reed-Warblers which now join the ever-growing list of extinct taxa. 

***

Here is a little update, in the meantime I was able to finde the original work by D. T. Holyoak and J.-C. Thibault from 1984.:

A. v. sous-espèce ? 

Raevavae: des fauvettes furent entendues par Lacan (J.-L. Mougin, comm. pers.) en mai 1968.
“ [1]

translation:

A. v. subspecies? 

Raevavae: warblers were heard by Lacan (J.-L. Mougin, pers. comm.) in May 1968.

*********************

References:

[1] D. T. Holyoak; J.-C. Thibault: Contribution à l’étude des oiseaux de Polynésie orientale. Mémoires du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle 127(1): 1-209. 1984
[2] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006
[3] David Pearson; Peter Kennerly: Reed and Bush Warblers. Christopher Helm 2009

*********************

edited: 10.03.2020

Ospreys on the Tongan Islands – when did they disappear?

The Osprey (Pandion haliaetus (L.)) is a highly specialized bird of prey that is distributed almost around the whole world except for Antarctica, and it was once even more widespread and occurred as far east as western Polynesia.:

The Osprey still ocurs on New Caledonia, but not further east, however, it formerly did and it is known to have occurred on the Tongan Islands on the basis of subfossil bones of adult and juvenile birds that were found in several archaeological sites on the islands of Ha’ano and ‚Uiha in the Ha’apai Islands group in the middle of the Tongan Islands chain. [2]

***

PANDION HALIAETUS (?).
Falco haliaetus, Forst. Descr.* &c. p. 257.
Isle of Pines (Island of Spruce Trees); Tonga Islands (Tongatabu or Tonga Island).
“ [1]

Is it possible that this Tongan form has survived into the early 19th century?

*********************

References:

[1] George Robert Gray: Catalogue of the birds of the tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean in the collection of the British Museum. London: printed by order of the Trustees 1859
[2] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

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edited: 10.03.2020

Pā-Tangaroa – ein ausgestorbener Star von der Insel Mangaia?

Heutzutage gibt es nur noch eine einzige Starenart in Zentral-Polynesien, den Rarotonga-Star (Aplonis cinereacsens Hartlaub & Finsch), der ausschließlich auf der Insel Rarotonga, der größten der Cook-Inseln vorkommt; eine weitere Form, der Schlichtstar (Aplonis mavornata Buller), seinerseits selbst ein Mysterium für über ein Jahrhundert, stammte von einer anderen der Cook-Inseln, nämlich Ma’uke.

Es ist also ziemlich sicher, dass weitere Formen einst auch auf anderen Inseln dieser Inselgruppe vorkamen, richtig?

Ich habe gerade einen Hinweis in diese Richtung gefunden, als ich die Namen aus einer Aufzählung von Vögeln aufgeschrieben habe, die im frühen 20. Jahrhundert von jemandem namens F. W. Christian zusammengestellt wurde; diese Liste ist Teil einer Art Wörterbuch des mangaianischen Dialekts, des Dialekts, der auf der Insel Mangaia, der südlichsten und zweitgrößten der Cookinseln, gesprochen wird.

Hier die Liste der Vogelnamen.:

Pā-Tangaroa. – A speckled bird; somewhat larger than the Kere-a-rako. Frequents coconut palm blossoms. 
Tangaa-‚eo. – The native Wood-pecker; blue above, yellow and white below. 
Kere-a-rako. – A small yellow and green song-bird much resembling a canary. 
Titi. – A bird living in the rocks and crags. Much relished for food. Cf. Maori Titi, the Mutton-bird. Sanskrit and Hindustani, Titti: Tittiri, the Partridge. 
Mokora’a. – The Wild Duck, or rather, a small species of teal, found in abundance round Lake Tiriara. 
Kauā. – A sea-bird. 
Rakoa. – A sea-bird. 
Torea. – A sea-bird. 
Kotuku. – The Blue Heron. 
Kakaia. – A beautiful small white tern or sea-gull. 
Kotaa. – The Frigate or Boatswain Bird. Cf. Samoa, A ta fu,; id. Fijian, Kandavu; id. Uleai (W. Carolines) Kataf; id. Sonserol (S. W. Caralises) Gatyava; id. Cf. Sanskrit Gandharva, a celestial messenger: angel. 
Tavake. – The Tropic Bird (Phaethon). Called in the Marquesas Tavae-ma-te-ve’o, from its two long red tail-feathers. Used in Polynesian head-ornaments. Cf. Ponape Chaok: Chik; id. Cf. Sanskrit Stabaka, Stavaka a peacock’s feather: tuft: plume. 
Kara’ura’u. – A sea-bird. 
Kururi: Kuriri. – The Sand-Piper.
Karavi’a. – The Long-tailed Cuckoo. 
Kura-mō. – A small Parrakeet (on Atiu).
“ [1]

Die entsprechenden wissenschaftlichen Namen der aufgezählten Vögel.:

Pā-Tangaroa – ?
Tangaa-‚eo – Todiramphus ruficollaris
Kere-a-rako – Acrocephalus k. kerearako
Titi – Pterodroma nigripennis
Mokora’a – Anas superciliosa
Kauā – Numenius tahitiensis
Rakoa – Puffinus lherminieri
Torea – Pluvialis fulva
Kotuku – Egretta sacra
Kakaia – Gygis alba
Kotaa – Fregata spp.
Tavake – Phaethon rubricauda
Kara’ura’u – Procelsterna cerulea
KururiKuriri – Tringa incana
Karavi’a – Eudynamis taitensis
Kura-mō – Vini kuhlii

***

Alle Namen lassen sich tatsächlich existierenden Vogelarten zuordnen, mit der Ausnahme des ersten Namens. 

Welche Art verbirgt sich also hinter dem Namen Pā-Tangaroa?

Dies ist tatsächlich ein eher ungewöhnlicher Name für einen polynesischen Vogel, und der Verweis auf Tangaroa, einen der wichtigsten polynesischen Götter, ist sehr interessant. Vielleicht wurde ein Vogel mit einem solchen Namen auch als gottähnlich oder heilig oder zumindest als tapu angesehen. 

Die Beschreibung dieses Vogels: gesprenkelt und etwas größer als der Kerearako (d.h. größer als 16 cm), häufig an Kokosnussblüten zu finden, passt recht gut zu einem Star der Gattung Aplonis, tatsächlich passt er mehr zu dieser als zu jeder anderen in Frage kommenden Gattung.

Es gab also mit ziemlicher Sicherheit einmal einen Star der Gattung Aplonis, der auf der Insel Mangaia lebte, und seine subfossilen Knochen könnten früher oder später entdeckt werden; die Frage ist, hat die Art lange genug überlebt, dass sich Einheimische zumindest daran erinnern konnten, dass er Pā-Tangaroa genannt wurde? Angesichts der Tatsache, dass die Erforschung der Fauna und Flora der Cook-Inseln erst zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts begann … ist dies durchaus möglich!

***

Ich sollte noch erwähnen, dass diese Auflistung, die aus dem Jahr 1920 stammt, bereits den Cookinsel-Rohrsänger (Acrocephalus kerearako Holyoak) erwähnt, der offiziell erst 1973 entdeckt (und ein Jahr später beschrieben) wurde. [2] 

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] F. W. Christian: List of Mangaia birds. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 29(114): 87. 1920
[2] D. T. Holyoak: Undescribed land birds from the Cook Islands, Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club 94(4): 145-150. 1974

*********************

bearbeitet: 10.03.2020

Photo safari

We used the little sunshine today ….

A Carrion Crow along the way was playing with- or trying to eat a walnut.

Carrion Crow (Corvus corone ssp. corone)

Along the river we saw at least three herons, two of them were wearing their breading plumage which differs by the redder beak and the blue instead of yellow skin around the eye.

Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea ssp. cinerea) in non-breeding plumage, note the rather orange colored beak and the yellow skin around the eye
Grey Heron in nearly full breeding plumage
Grey Heron in full breeding plumage

A tiny Blue Tit was willing to be photographed, however, I could get only one photo … well, better than nothing. 🙂

Blue Tit (Cyanistes caerulea ssp. caerulea)

Pinterest …

I have to confess: I do not fully understand what this Pinterest is supposed to be, apparently you can ‚make‘ a page there where you can post stuff like photos and other pictures that is yours and some that is not …

So, sooner or later you might find ‚things‘ there that you know are actually yours but that you did not have posted there, like in this case.:

the article and the bird were made by me, the rest not

I have to confess another thing: I hate Pinterest, whenever I try to find depictions of something some Pinterest page pops up, but as long as you aren’t a member you cannot open anything to look further, so it is quite useless for non-members.

… and now this – NERD ….

Paradiesvögel – eine (Unter)Arten Liste

Eine Auflistung aller 78 Formen, die derzeit anerkannt werden, einfach in alphabetischer Reihenfolge.:

Astrapia mayeri 
Astrapia nigra 
Astrapia rothschildi 
Astrapia splendidissima ssp. helios 
Astrapia splendidissima ssp. splendidissima 
Astrapia stephaniae ssp. feminina 
Astrapia stephaniae ssp. stephaniae
 

Cicinnurus magnificus ssp. chrysopterus 
Cicinnurus magnificus ssp. hunsteini 
Cicinnurus magnificus ssp. magnificus 
Cicinnurus regius ssp. coccineifrons 
Cicinnurus regius ssp. regius 
Cicinnurus respublica
 

Drepanornis albertisi ssp. albertisi 
Drepanornis albertisi ssp. cervinicauda 
Drepanornis bruijnii 


Epimachus fastuosus ssp. atratus 
Epimachus fastuosus ssp. fastuosus 
Epimachus fastuosus ssp. ultimus 
Epimachus meyeri ssp. albicans 
Epimachus meyeri ssp. bloodi 
Epimachus meyeri ssp. meyeri 


Lophorina intercedens 
Lophorina magnifica ssp. alberti 
Lophorina magnifica ssp. magnifica 
Lophorina minor 
Lophorina niedda ssp. inopinata 
Lophorina niedda ssp. niedda 
Lophorina paradisea 
Lophorina superba ssp. addenda 
Lophorina superba ssp. latipennis 
Lophorina superba ssp. superba 
Lophorina victoriae 


Lycocorax obiensis 
Lycocorax pyrrhopterus ssp. morotensis 
Lycocorax pyrrhopterus ssp. pyrrhopterus
 

Manucodia ater ssp. alter 
Manucodia ater ssp. ater 
Manucodia ater ssp. subalter 
Manucodia chalybatus 
Manucodia comrii 
Manucodia jobiensis 


Paradigalla brevicauda 
Paradigalla carunculata 


Paradisaea apoda 
Paradisaea decora 
Paradisaea guilielmi 
Paradisaea minor ssp. finschi 
Paradisaea minor ssp. jobiensis 
Paradisaea minor ssp. minor 
Paradisaea raggiana ssp. augustaevictoriae 
Paradisaea raggiana ssp. intermedia 
Paradisaea raggiana ssp. raggiana 
Paradisaea raggiana ssp. salvadorii 
Paradisaea rubra 


Paradisornis rudolphi ssp. margaritae 
Paradisornis rudolphi ssp. rudolphi 


Parotia berlepschi 
Parotia carolae ssp. carolae 
Parotia carolae ssp. chalcothorax 
Parotia carolae ssp. chrysenia 
Parotia carolae ssp. clelandiorum 
Parotia carolae ssp. meeki 
Parotia lawesii ssp. helenae 
Parotia lawesii ssp. lawesii 
Parotia sefilata 
Parotia wahnesi 


Phonygammus keraudrenii ssp. gouldii 
Phonygammus keraudrenii ssp. hunsteini 
Phonygammus keraudrenii ssp. jamesii 
Phonygammus keraudrenii ssp. keraudrenii 
Phonygammus keraudrenii ssp. neumanni 
Phonygammus keraudrenii ssp. purpureoviolaceus 


Pteridophora alberti 

Seleucidis melanoleucos ssp. auripennis 
Seleucidis melanoleucos ssp. melanoleucos 

Semioptera wallacii ssp. halmaherae
Semioptera wallacii ssp. wallacii

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] Andy Elliot; Nigel J. Collar; Murray D. Bruce; Guy M. Kirwan: The nomenclature of Lophorina (Aves: Paradisaeidae), with remarks on the type and type locality of L. superba. Zootaxa 4732: 57-78. 2020

*********************

bearbeitet: 28.02.2020

The enigmatic Washington Island Gadwall

The most mysterious of all the Pacific waterfowl is Coues‘ Gadwall, Anas strepera couesi, only two specimens of which have ever been found, on Washington Island, more than six hundred miles south of Hawaii. The two specimens, the male type and a female, collected in 1874, are now in the U.S. National Museum in Washington. In appearance these birds are simply Gadwalls reduced to about two-thirds normal size. The plumage too is rather dull and somewhat unfinished-looking. Washington Island is a marshy place only a few miles long, with a small brackich lake near the centre and a fringe of palms. Since he original pair of birds were discovered, several expeditions have stopped at the island, but no one has ever seen Coues‘ Gadwall again. Speculation is perhaps unprofitable, but sometimes it is irresistible. I often like to wonder how these birds ever came to Washington Island. It is my guess, for what it is worth, that these two specimens represent the last of a very small inbred breeding population of true Gadwalls which by an accident of migration had become established on the island. I suspect that their size and coloration are due to environment and inbreeding rather than to any genetic change.“ [4]

This account summarizes quite well what’s known about this bird.

Gadwall and Washington Island Gadwall (the smaller bird on the right side)

Depiction from: ‘John C. Phillips: A Natural History of the Ducks. Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company; 1922-1926’

(public domain)

***

Then there are some strange accounts, or rather misinterpretations of accounts, let’s start with one that is rather less known, and speaks of the occurence of a form of gadwall on the Society Islands.:

Forster met with a species of Gadwall on the Society Islands and identified it with A. strepera Linn. It is much more likely that is was C. couesi, for the range of that species doubtless extends beyond Washington Island, the only locality as yet known for it.“ [2]

I read this original account by J. R. Forster, which is completely in Latin, and which merely is a enumeration of species, the duck is mentioned here just as „Anatem streperam„, that’s all, and this account almost for sure refers to the Pacific Black Duck (Anas superciliosa Gmelin), which occurs on the Society Islands, and which is not separately mentioned here … and in fact, Forster mentiones „Anas strepera“ again in an enumeration of birds he describes from New Zealand, this also clearly refers to the Pacific Black Duck! [1]

***

Then there’s another account in a German book, which again is refering to an account in James C. Greenway’S „Extinct and vanishing birds of the world“ from the 1960s.:

Interessant ist eine weitere Bemerkung desselben Autors, wonach nach Angaben von Ripley ein auf den Tuamotu-Inseln gefundenes Entenkücken sich bei Erreichen der Geschlechtsreife als Schnatterente herausstellte.“ 

translation:

Interesting is another comment of the same author [J. C. Greenway], based on which according to Ripley a duckling found on the Tuamotu islands, when reaching maturity, turned out to be a gadwall.“ [6]

***

Okay … after purchasing J. C. Greenway’s book, which took me ages again, I can now proudly present you this abovementioned account by the ominous Ripley.:

But, on the other hand, Dr. S. Dillon Ripley tells me that a duckling taken on the Tuamotu Islands was raised by Charles Nordhoff at Tahiti. When it reached maturity it turned out to be a gadwall.“ [5]

That’s all, we actually deal with hearsay, an account of an account of someone who claimes to have caught a duckling on one of the Tuamotu Islands (these are actually the largest island group in the world consisting of no less than 76 atolls, just by the way ….) without naming the island in question.

However, given the geographic position of Washington Island/Teraina, a former occurence of this bird on the Tuamotu Archipelago makes much more sense than on the Society Islands.

***

But now let’s take a look on what these two persons, Dr. S. Dillon Ripley and Charles Nordhoff, have to tell; we start with Mr. Ripley …:

It sometimes happens that migrating Ducks plummet down on to isolated islands in the Pacific. Mr. Charles Nordhoff told me once that a schooner captain inbound to Tahiti from Flint island, an isolated rock pinnacle three hundred miles or more north towards Hawaii from the Society Islands, brought him a duckling which he had picked up on the island. Mr. Nordhoff was able to raise the bird, and found that it was a Pintail, presumably from wild parents. If Pintails can fly so far south of Hawaii where they are in the habit of wintering, there seems no reason why Gadwalls should not be able to do the same thing.“ [4]

… and go on with Mr. Nordhoff.:

In his article in the Waterfowl number of the AVICULTURAL MAGAZINE, Dillon Ripley mentions a duckling I received some years ago from Flint Island, which when reared proved to be a fine male Pintail. I believe that a good many stray Ducks from the Northern Hemisphere land on the Pacific Islands, and occasionally, as Ripley suggests in the case of Coues‘ Gadwall, give rise to a sedentary and eventually inbred race. I have reliable information that Shovelers in winter plumage have vistited both the Marquesas and the Tuamotu on several occasions, and that Pintail have been seen on Atiu in the Cook Group, south-west of Tahiti.“ [3]

Well, well, so the Tuamotu Islands suddenly has changed into Flint Island, which in fact is not a part of the Tuamotu Archipelago but of Kiribati – and – the duckling that was supposed to turn out being a Gadwall was in fact a Pintail (Anas acuta L.), a completely different species of duck! 

After all, we are left with probably more questions than answers.

*********************

References:

[1] Johann Reinhold Forster; Hinrich Lichtenstein: Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis terras per annos 1772, 1773 et 1774 suscepto. Berolini: Ex Officina Academica 1844
[2] Lionel K. Wiglesworth: Aves polynesiae: a catalogue of the birds of the Polynesian subregion (not including the Sandwich Islands). Berlin: R. Friedlaender & Sohn 1891 In: Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königl. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Etnographischen Museums zu Dresden Bd. 3: 1-84. 1890/91. herausgegeben von Hofrath Dr. A. B. Meyer, Director des Museums
[3] Charles Nordhoff: Notes on the birds of Tahiti. The Avicultural Magazine ser. 5. 8(5): 119-120. 1943
[4] Dillon Ripley: Pacific Waterfowl. The Avicultural Magazine ser. 5. 8(3): 67-70. 1943
[5] James C. Greenway, Jr: Extinct and vanishing birds of the world. Dover Publications, 2nd Edition 1967
[6] Dieter Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986

*********************

edited: 28.02.2020

A Tahitian Swamphen?

While researching some accounts reffering to the Washington Island Gadwall (Mareca strepera ssp. couesi Streets), I stumbled accros a footnote that made me wonder … a bit at least.:

The native birds of Tahiti are in a sad state; the Porphyrio is extinct, as is the small grey, Thrush-like Omaomao [Tahiti Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus caffer (Sparrman))], famous for its beautiful song, and the magnificent large Fruit Pigeon [Polynesian Imperial-Pigeon (Ducula aurorae (Peale))], of which a few existed as late as 1920.“ [1]

Well, aside the fact that the name „Omaomao“ is rather applied to the Garrett’s Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus musae ssp. garretti (Holyoak & Thibault)), the Tahiti Reed-Warbler is still alive.

What amazes me is that the author mentiones the term „Porphyrio“ in a absolutely casual way, and this certain author, Charles Nordhoff, knew what a Porphyrio is, he kept six New Zealand Swamphens (Porphyrio melanotus (Temminck)) in the garden of his house while living on the island of Tahiti.

***

There is furthermore a painting by Paul Gaugin, made in 1897 during a stay on Tahiti, it is called „Vairumati“ (see below) and shows a female islander sitting on a chair and to her left a strange-looking white bird that very much reminds on a swamphen. 

I personally do not think that Gaugin painted a real bird here because the same bird appears in several of his paintings, always in the same pose, differing only in the coloration.

Paul Gaugin „Vairumati“ 1897

(public domain)

***

It nevertheless is almost certain that a swamphen species once inhabited the island of Tahiti, and that additional species inhabited all of the other Society islands, however, the only true evidence for that assumption are the subfossil remains of McNab’s Swamphen (Porphyrio mcnabi Kirchman & Steadman) found on the island of Huahine.

I only somehow doubt that this Tahiti Swamphen disappeared only around the 1940s … but, who knows.

*********************

References:

[1] Charles Nordhoff: Notes on the birds of Tahiti. The Avicultural Magazine ser. 5. 8(5): 119-120. 1943

*********************

edited: 27.02.2020

Birds of Paradise hybrides – Duivenbode’s Six-wired Bird of Paradise

At first sight this bird looks quite like a typical parotia, bearing a glossy breast shield and elongated, thread-like occipital plumes, however, it only had two of them instead of the usual six, so its vernacular name Duivenbode’s Six-wired Bird of Paradise should actually rather be Duivenbode’s Two-wired Bird of Paradise.

The form is known from two male specimens and is now known to be a hybrid of the Superb Bird of Paradise (Lophorina superba (J. R. Forster)) and the Western Parotia (Parotia sefilata (Pennant)).

Depiction from: ‚Walter Rothschild: On recently described Paradiseidae, with notes on some other new species. Ibis 9(5): 350-367. 1911‘

(not in copyright)

*********************

References:

[1] Clifford B. Frith; Bruce M. Beehler: The Birds of Paradise: Paradisaeidae. Oxford University Press 1998

*********************

edited: 26.02.2020

How many tapaculos of the genus Scytalopus are there?

Well, many – according to a new study (which apparently took about 40 years in the making!!!).

The tapaculos of the genus Scytalopus are troughout small, mostly greyish colored, inconspicuous birds with poor flight abilities that inhabit the dense undergrowth of the Andean forests of southwestern South America (some species occur more northerly).

The Magellanic Tapaculo (Scytalopus magellanicus (J. F. Gmelin)) (see depiction below) is one of them, and is a part of a complex that shares its name, the Scytalopus [magellanicus] complex, which again includes several species, some of which have been discovered and described only recently.

Magellanic Tapaculo (Scytalopus magellanicus)

Depiction from: ‚Richard Crawshay: The birds of Tierra del Fuego. London: B. Quaritch 1907‘

(public domain)

Yet, this complex has gotten even richer in species, with the description of three completely new ones, split from others: the Jalca Tapaculo (Scytalopus frankeae), the White-winged Tapaculo (Scytalopus krabbei), and the Ampay Tapaculo (Scytalopus whitneyi), as well as one subspecies (itself only described in 2010) being elevated to species rank, the Eastern Paramo Tapaculo (Scytalopus androstictus). [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Niels K. Krabbe; Thomas S. Schulenberg; Peter A. Hosner; Kenneth V. Rosenberg; Tristan J. Davis; Gary H. Rosenberg; Daniel F. Lane; Michael J. Andersen; Mark B. Robbins; Carlos Daniel Cadena; Thomas Valqui; Jessie F. Salter; Andrew J. Spencer; Fernando Angulo; Jon Fjeldså: Untangling cryptic diversity in the High Andes: Revision of the Scytalopus [magellanicus] complex (Rhinocryptidae) in Peru reveals three new species. The Auk 137: 1-26. 2020

*********************

edited: 26.02.2020

Eine Pleistozäne Lerche

Ein gut erhaltener, mumifizierter Vogelleichnam, der im sibirischen Permafrostboden gefunden wurde, wurde als Ohrenlerche (Eremophila alpestris (L.)) identifiziert, der Körper wurde nun weiter untersucht, und die Ergebnisse sind erstaunlich. 

Foto aus: ‚Nicolas Dussex; David W. G. Stanton; Hanna Sigeman; Per G. P. Ericson; Jacquelyn Gill; Daniel C. Fisher; Albert V. Protopopov; Victoria L. Herridge; Valery Plotnikov; Bengt Hansson; Love Dalén: Article Open Access Published: 21 February 2020 Biomolecular analyses reveal the age, sex and species identity of a near-intact Pleistocene bird carcass. Communications Biology 3: 1-6. 2020‘

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

Die Radiokarbondatierung des gefrorenen Körpers ergab ein Alter von 43600 bis 41600 Jahren, das bedeutet, er stammt aus der letzten Eiszeit innerhalb des Oberpleistozäns (als Wollhaarmammuts überall auf der Nordhalbkugel häufig und weitverbreitet waren).

Die DNA des Vogels wurde ebenfalls überprüft und es wurde festgestellt, dass es sich um eine Ohrenlerche handelt, allerdings konnte das gefrorene Exemplar keiner der bekannten Unterarten zugeordnet werden. Es scheint hingegen der direkte Vorfahr zweier noch existierenden Formen zu sein, nämlich der Steppenlerche (Eremophila alpestris ssp. brandti (Dresser)) und der Uferlerche (Eremophila alpestris ssp. flava (J. F. Gmelin)) (siehe Foto), die sich aufgrund der Veränderungen der Umweltbedingungen während des Übergangs vom Pleistozän zum Holozän zu eigenständigen Unterarten aufspalteten. [1]

Uferlerche (Eremophila alpestris ssp. flava (J. F. Gmelin)); Männchen

Foto: MPF

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

*********************

Quelle:

[1] Nicolas Dussex; David W. G. Stanton; Hanna Sigeman; Per G. P. Ericson; Jacquelyn Gill; Daniel C. Fisher; Albert V. Protopopov; Victoria L. Herridge; Valery Plotnikov; Bengt Hansson; Love Dalén: Article Open Access Published: 21 February 2020 Biomolecular analyses reveal the age, sex and species identity of a near-intact Pleistocene bird carcass. Communications Biology 3: 1-6. 2020

*********************

bearbeitet: 21.02.2020

Birds of Paradise hybrids – Le Nébuleux

This might be the first part of a little series ….

Le Nébuleux, or the Nebulous, is known only from two paintings by Jacques Barraband in François Le Vaillant’s ‚Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de paradis et des rolliers‘ from 1806, which very likely show a single specimen in two different positions. Jacques Barraband is known to have been absolutely accurate, thus the bird he depicted must have existed and must have looked like in his depictions. [1]

The specimen is very clearly a Twelfe-wired Bird of Paradise (Seleucides melanoleuca (Daudin)) but with only nine (or then?) instead of twelfe ‚wires‘ and with the underparts being black instead of yellow; its female-like brown colored wings indicate that it was a subadult bird. [2]

The Nebulous may have been the same as Bruijn’s Riflebird (Craspedophora bruyni Büttikofer) aka Mantou’s Riflebird (Craspedophora mantoui Oustalet), which both are hybrids of the Magnificent Riflebird (Ptiloris magnificus Vieillot) and the actual Twelfe-wired Bird of Paradise. [2]

Le Nébuleux, dans l’état du repos / The Nebulous, in the state of rest
Le Nébuleux, étalant ses parures / The Nebulous, spreading out his ornaments

*********************

References:

[1] François Le Vaillant: Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de paradis et des rolliers: suivie de celle des toucans et des barbus. Paris: Chez Denné le jeune, Libraire, rue Vivienne, n°. 10. & Perlet, Libraire, rue de Tournon 1806
[2] Clifford B. Frith; Bruce M. Beehler: The Birds of Paradise: Paradisaeidae. Oxford University Press 1998

*********************

edited: 21.02.2020

A finchy sketch

This is actually a undetermined cardinal, a member of the family Cardinalidae and thus not a real finch in the general sense … I need a picture of such a ‚thing‘ for something I plan to write about, but I don’t want to say anything further now.

well, the feet are shit not so good, we’ll see where this leads us to …

********************

edited: 20.02.2020

Another little photo safari

Today we have been in the Botanical Garden of Jena, some kilometers from home, I wanted to try to ‚catch‘ some birds with my camera.

I was able to get a little Robin.:

Robin (Erithacus rubecula ssp. rubecula)

I also got two Blackbirds, a female and a male.

Blackbird (Turdus merula ssp. merula); female
Blackbird (Turdus merula ssp. merula); male

It is astonishingly warm these days – thanks to global warming.

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edited: 01.02.2020